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English chemist Charles Hatchett announced the discovery of columbium (Cb) to the Royal Society on this day in 1801
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Curriculum alignment tool
Elementary Articles, 20 Nov 2014
With thousands of resources on Learn Chemistry, it can be hard to find a resource that suits the lessons you’re... Annotated article series name change
Elementary Articles, 19 Nov 2014
The Royal Society of Chemistry’s annotated article series is designed to help students interpret and...
Tip of the day
Re: delta S=RlnK
I think your problem is that ln1=2.718 (log1=0)
Re: Atoms to ions!
Keith Andrew Ross: Take care when you say atoms are unstable. It always costs energy to take electrons from an atom (the ionisation energy) although to give an electron can release energy (electron affinity). The trade-off becomes profitable only if the ions can subsequently become surrounded either byu ions of opposite charge (as in a crystal) or surrounded by polar solvent molecules such as water (as in aqueous solutions). See the misconceptions in chemistry by Keith Taber on the rsc website or follow: http://www.educ.cam.ac.uk/research/projects/eclipse/ I like to show that all bonding starts from two atoms approaching - if there is room in their outer shells they form a single covalent bond (as in NaCl vapour). However we now ask - can more atoms be added? With two non-metallic elements you usually end up with small self-contained molecules like HNHH because the ourter shells quickly become full. But if it is two metal atoms no matter how many atoms you add the shell never becomes full so you can pack up to 12 atoms round each and you get the dense conducting properties typical of a metallic lattice. For a full explanation download Science Issues, free of charge, and go to Matter/the structure triangle/bonding (you have to click through many screens to get there, or go to the Natiuonal Curriculum Index and scroll to bonding). The attached PowerPoint I used in conjunction with the Science Issues resource to help post-GCSE students rediscover and interest in and an understanding of science. See also the Sci-tutor Resources on the ASE website. Perhaps I should have said "atoms are inherently relatively unstable". This is supported by empirical evidence in that they are never found (under normal conditions) uncombined in nature (with the obvious exception of the noble gases)