1.0 Scope and Standards
Toxicology Research is a monthly journal for the publication of original research (Papers and Communications) and reviews focusing on the broad scope of physiological toxicology research, including applied toxicology, mechanisms of toxicology, molecular and cellular toxicology and toxic effects on safety evaluation and risk assessment. Specific topics include:
- Alternatives to animal testing including in vitro methods and computer modelling
- Biomarkers of human toxicity
- Endocrine toxicology
- Environmental toxicology
- Genetic toxicology including genetic damage, the agents that induce such damage, and the biological mechanisms that respond to the consequences of genetic damage
- Nanotoxicology including environmental and human exposure, hazard, and risk of use and applications of nano-structured materials
- Reproductive and development toxicology
- Risk assessment including chemometrics, mode of action, chemical mixtures
- Toxicogenomics including gene and protein activity within cells or tissue of an organism in response to toxic substances
The following areas are not within the scope of Toxicology Research:
- Studies which focus only on toxic contaminant levels in the environment or in populations, and the sources, transport or fate of these contaminants
- Biomarkers for the detection of contaminants in the environment
- Environmental contaminant studies that do not discuss toxic effects on a molecular level
2.0 Article types
Toxicology Research Communications contain novel scientific work of such importance that rapid publication is desirable. Authors should briefly indicate in a covering letter the reasons why they feel that publication of their work as a communication is justified. Communications should be written in a concise fashion, with a recommended length of between two and four printed journal pages. Authors are encouraged to supply any additional procedures, data and other material as a supplementary information file.
2.2 Full papers
These contain original scientific work that has not been published previously. However, work that has appeared in print in a short form such as a Communication is normally acceptable. Please note that full papers based on Communications must represent a substantial extension of the original material. Full Papers should be written in a concise fashion. Typical articles would be between three and seven pages in length, and articles would not normally exceed ten pages. Authors are encouraged to supply any additional procedures, data and other material as a supplementary information file.
Toxicology Research Reviews are either a concise and critical appraisal or a personal viewpoint of activity in a specialist area of toxicology. Reviews will be easy-to-read articles (typically 6-10 journal pages in length) which focus on the key developments that have shaped the topic, rather than comprehensive reviews of the literature. Authors are encouraged to include their own perspective on developments, trends and future directions; however Reviews should not solely cover the author's own work, but should include key developments from across the field. Reviews are normally published by invitation of the Toxicology Research Editorial Office. However, direct submissions from authors are welcome. Enquiries regarding the submission of Reviews should be directed to the Managing Editor.
3.0 Research which involves live animals or human subjects
3.1 Live animals
In cases where a study involves the use of live animals, the author should include in the Methods/Experimental section of the manuscript a statement that the experimentation, transportation and care of the animals were performed in compliance with the relevant laws and institutional guidelines, and also state the institutional committee(s) that have approved the experiments. The procedures used for the handling and care of animals should be briefly described in the manuscript. Editors may, in certain circumstances, request additional information from the author. The National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) has produced the ARRIVE guidelines (link available below). Authors are encouraged to use these guidelines when preparing a manuscript for submission.
3.2 Human subjects
In cases where a study involves the use of live human subjects, the author should include in the Methods/Experimental section of the manuscript a statement that the research is approved by an appropriate Institutional Review Board (IRB) and complies with all applicable laws and institutional guidelines, and also state the institutional committee(s) that have approved the experiments. Authors should also include a statement that informed consent was obtained from all human subjects. Editors may, in certain circumstances, request additional information from the author, and referees may be asked to comment specifically on any cases in which concerns arise. A manuscript will not be considered for publication if the author has not provided satisfactory statements, as detailed above. Where research has been carried out outside of federal regulations, authors should provide evidence that the research was carried out in accordance with the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki.
3.3 Graphic images of test subjects
The appropriateness of inclusion of graphic images and/or videos of test subjects will be considered by the handling Associate Editor on a case-by-case basis.
4.0 Experimental details and data guidelines
Sufficient details of experimental procedures should be included such that a scientist skilled in the art would be able to reproduce the results presented. The synthesis of all new compounds must be described in detail. Extensive experimental procedures and data (more than two journal pages) should be placed in a supplementary information file.
4.1 Organic compounds
Synthetic procedures must include the specific reagents, products and solvents and must give the amounts (g, mmol, for products: %) for all of them, as well as clearly stating how the percentage yields are calculated. The final physical state (solid; amorphous; liquid; solution) should be disclosed. Where compounds are synthesised as part of an array or library a representative synthesis will be sufficient. Characterisation levels should be consistent with the importance of the structure to the conclusion of the work:
- For key new compounds the purity and identity should be established. Data should ideally include 1H NMR data backed up with LC-MS data with a minimum purity criteria of 95%. Additional data such as 13C NMR, elemental analysis and HRMS data should be supplied if available.
- For chiral compounds, evidence of enantiomeric purity via chiral HPLC or derivatisation to diastereoisomeric compounds/use of chiral shift reagents should be given.
- Data is not required for known compounds synthesised by a known method, but an original reference should be cited.
4.1.1 Disclosure of chemical structures
Chemical structures should be reported in the manuscript if that structure is necessary to understand the paper or repeat an experimental or computational procedure. Chemical structures should not be blanked out. In certain cases the non-disclosure of chemical structures may be acceptable, and these are considered on a case-by-case basis by the Associate Editor.
4.2 Biological data
Doses and concentrations should be expressed as molar quantities (e.g. mol kg-1, mmol kg-1, M, mM). Forms of administration as well as physical states and formulations should be noted. Biological test methods should be described in sufficient detail such that a scientist skilled in the art would be able to reproduce the results presented. Data may be presented tabulated or as graphs; extensive data for compounds is best presented in tabulated within the Electronic Supplementary information.
Submissions which report toxicology studies involving nanomaterials are welcome. In order for these articles to be properly assessed authors should ensure that the following guidelines are met. Submissions which do not report all necessary information should include a statement as to why this cannot be supplied.
4.3.1 Synthesis and characterisation of nanomaterials
Authors must include experimental procedures for the synthesis of nanomaterials, including any later modifications. Characterisation of the physico-chemical parameters of nanomaterials immediately prior to and during their application, and following any modifications during their interaction with biological systems, should be reported. Nanomaterials delivered from producers should also be characterised.
Characterisation data should include:
- Size and size distribution (in both dry and wet states)
- Elemental composition including impurities
Authors should give nanomaterial dosing as nanomaterial surface area per volume and number of particles per volume. Justification of the doses of nanomaterials used should be given, particularly when doses are beyond realistic exposure and application scenarios. In vitro dosing parameters such as exposure length, cell seeding density, an estimate of the actual cellular dose and the relevance of the cell types used should be given.
4.3.3 Additional information
Authors are encouraged to include comments on how the presented data would extrapolate to humans. Evidence of uptake of nanomaterials (e.g. TEM) should be included in cases where it is postulated that uptake is linked to toxicity.
Animal Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments
Declaration of Helsinki
Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects
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