In 1828, Friedrich Wöhler converts ammonium cyanate, an inorganic compound, into urea, an organic compound. Both compounds have the same elemental composition but have different properties. This experiment is considered to have helped to overthrow the contemporary vitalism/dualism theory supported by other chemists of the time including Berzelius.
This timeline entry suggestion courtesy of
Derek McPhee, Crompton Co/Cie.