The thermite reaction
This demonstration shows the highly
reaction between exothermic aluminium and iron(III) oxide that produces molten iron. This is a reaction, showing competition aluminium to be a more reactive than iron. A metal reaction takes place. redox
The reaction is violent but safe provided the procedures are followed exactly. Some teachers have had accidents when performing the procedure outside in a strong breeze; the powders blew into the flame, caught fire and caused burns to the hand and/or face. Siting the demonstration in a fume cupboard has caused damage to the cupboard.
The method described here is performed on a laboratory bench and produces limited fumes. Do NOT do this demonstration in a fume cupboard or outdoors. It produces a result within seconds of setting it off because the water cools the iron down very quickly. A rehearsal is essential if this experiment has not been done before.
There have been occasional reported explosions when using methods similar to this. It is essential not to exceed the stated quantities and that the demonstrator and students are protected by safety screens.
The bench should be clear of combustible materials and protected with a sheet of hardboard or heat resistant mats. The demonstrator must have room to move quickly away to a safe distance.
The demonstration takes about 10 minutes to carry out if the apparatus is set up and the solid reagents are weighed in advance.
Observers and demonstrator must wear eye protection. For the demonstrator this must be goggles or a face shield.
For one demonstration:
Filter paper, 11 cm diameter
Plastic beaker or thick-walled glass beaker (1 dm
3) (it must fit between the tripod legs)
Sand (see diagram)
Heat resistant mats
Plastic magnetic retriever or small bar magnet
The quantities given are for one demonstration
Thermite mixture (Note 1):
Aluminium powder (medium grade) (HIGHLY FLAMMABLE), 3 g
Iron(III) oxide, 9 g
Igniter (Note 2 and 3):
Domestic sparkler (16cm long, sold for indoor use)
Refer to Health & Safety and Technical notes section below for additional information.
Health & Safety and Technical notes
Read our standard health & safety guidance
A face shield or goggles and a laboratory coat (it can become messy at the end) should be worn by the demonstrator. Safety screens must be used to surround the apparatus. Students should stand further than 4 m from the reaction and wear eye protection. The thermite reaction can trigger heat or smoke sensors; you cannot do the experiment in a laboratory fitted with smoke sensors.
Aluminium powder, Al(s), (HIGHLY FLAMMABLE) - see CLEAPSS Hazcard.
Iron(III) oxide, Fe 2O 3(s) - see CLEAPSS Hazcard.
1 It is important that the iron(III) oxide used in this demonstration is absolutely dry. An hour or so in a warm oven, or heating in an evaporating dish over a Bunsen flame, should suffice. The oxide should be allowed to cool completely before mixing. The weighed quantities of iron(III) oxide (9 g) maximum and aluminium powder (3 g) maximum may be thoroughly mixed beforehand by repeatedly pouring the mixture to-and-fro between two pieces of scrap paper (never stir with a metal spatula), and then stored for the demonstration in a suitable container labelled ‘Thermite mixture’.
2 The Igniter for the reaction is a domestic sparkler. It should be one for indoor use but need not be hand-held. The sparkler needs to be longer than 10 cm to ensure there is time to retreat to a safe distance. A 16 cm sparkler length is ideal and the handle should be cut off using tin snips or pliers. Sparklers longer than 16 cm may become top-heavy. Avoid cutting into excess explosive; this causes it to crack, and it can fall off dangerously before the demonstrator can retire to a safe distance.
3 Due to the UK Explosives Regulations 2014 alternative igniter mixtures (such as magnesium powder, barium nitrate and magnesium ribbon) on scales larger than 0.5 g combined weight cannot be used in schools without an Explosives Certificate issued by the police. Igniter mixtures at or below 0.5 g result in a less reliable ignition, so a sparkler should be used.
The demonstrator may wish (or be persuaded by the audience) to do a repeat demonstration. In this event it is important to keep the second set of materials well away from the first demonstration site.
Disposal: If the sparkler fails to set off the thermite mixture, dispose of the unreacted mixture by pouring it into dilute (2M) hydrochloric (1200 cm 3) or sulfuric acid (600 cm 3) in a beaker in a fume cupboard and leave to stand. You can use 1M dilute acid but will need to double to volumes of acid used.
a Fold one 11 cm diameter filter paper into a cone shape.
b Into a 1 dm 3 beaker, pour sand until it is two-fifths (2/5) full and then add water until it is four-fifths (4/5) full.
c Cover an area of the bench with several heat-resistant mats and place the beaker in the centre. Set up the equipment as shown in the diagram above and surround it with safety screens. Add the thermite mixture (see Note 1) to the filter paper cone sitting in the pipe clay triangle. WARNING Push the filter paper cone into the triangle firmly, so there is no tendency for it to pop out.
d Insert a domestic sparkler upright into the thermite mixture. 3-4 cm should be buried below the mixture with the rest extended above the filter paper cone. Light the sparkler with a Bunsen burner flame and retreat to a safe distance behind the safety screens. A very vigorous reaction should follow, with some sparks flying upwards. The very hot residue containing molten iron will fall through into the water.
e Once the reaction has stopped, remove the beaker and decant the water into the sink. Retrieve the iron formed with a magnet. Wash the iron under running water.
The reaction is: iron(III) oxide + aluminium → aluminium oxide + iron
This shows that aluminium is above iron in the reactivity series.
Once underway, the reaction is highly exothermic, rapidly reaching temperatures as high as 2000
oC, well in excess of the melting point of iron (1535 oC).
The practical use of this reaction is to weld railways lines together and could be mentioned.
The ‘thermite’ mixture is stable until strong heating is applied, hence the need for the domestic sparkler to initiate the reaction. Some of the igniter mixtures commonly used in the past are now covered by the Explosives Regulations 2014. This means that no more than 0.5 g of such mixtures can be used unless the school has an Explosives Certificate issued by the police. The sparkler method is preferred because igniter mixtures on scale of 0.5g or below are less reliable.
Health & Safety checked, August 2016
This Practical Chemistry resource was developed by the Nuffield Foundation and the Royal Society of Chemistry.
This resource has been reviewed and updated with advice from CLEAPSS in response to the UK Explosives Regulations 2014.
© Nuffield Foundation and the Royal Society of Chemistry
There are many video clips of thermite reactions on the internet, some are carried out on a scale and in a manner which is extremely hazardous, so take care which you use to show students.
Page last updated September 2016