Red, white and blue!
A solution of
ammonia is poured into each of three beakers which contain (unknown to the audience) small amounts of phenolphthalein, lead nitrate and copper(II) sulfate solution. The beakers’ contents turn red, milky white and deep blue respectively. Pouring the contents of the beakers into acid reverses the changes, to give a colourless solution.
The demonstration lasts about 3 minutes, longer if explaining the chemistry to an A-level audience.
It takes about 30 - 45 minutes to set up.
For each demonstration:
Eye protection: goggles
Diposable gloves (preferably nitrile)
Beakers (250 cm
Conical flasks (500 cm
Beaker (100 cm
Dropping pipettes, 3
Ammonia solution, 1 M, 250 cm
Dilute nitric acid, 2 M (CORROSIVE), 250 cm
Copper(II) sulfate solution, 0.5 M, 1 cm
Lead(II) nitrate solution, saturated (TOXIC, DANGEROUS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT),
1 cm 3
Phenolphthalein solution (HIGHLY FLAMMABLE)
Deionised or distilled water
Refer to Health & Safety and Technical notes section below for additional information.
Health & Safety and Technical notes
Read our standard health & safety guidance
Wear goggles and protective gloves.
All solutions must be made up in deionised or distilled water.
Ammonia solution, NH
3(aq) - see CLEAPSS Hazcard and CLEAPSS Recipe Book.
Dilute nitric acid, HNO
3(aq), (CORROSIVE) - see CLEAPSS Hazcard and CLEAPSS Recipe Book.
Copper(II) sulfate solution, CuSO
4(aq) - see CLEAPSS Hazcard and CLEAPSS Recipe Book.
Lead(II) nitrate solution, Pb(NO
3) 2(aq), (TOXIC, DANGEROUS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT) - see CLEAPSS Hazcard and CLEAPSS Recipe Book. Add 14 g of lead nitrate to 10 cm 3 of deionised water and stir to make a saturated solution. Do not use tap water to make up the solution since it will turn cloudy if there are any chloride ions present.
Phenolphthalein solution (HIGHLY FLAMMABLE) - see CLEAPSS
Hazcard and CLEAPSS Recipe Book.
Before the demonstration
The following operations should be carried out of sight of the audience:
a Line up the three beakers on the bench.
b Place about 1 cm 3 of phenolphthalein solution in the first, about 1 cm 3 of saturated lead nitrate solution in the second and about 1 cm 3 of saturated copper sulfate solution in the third. The volumes are not critical – a single ‘squirt’ from a teat pipette will be accurate enough.
c Place 250 cm 3 of ammonia solution in one 500 cm 3 flask and about 125 cm 3 of the nitric acid in the other.
d Mark the ammonia flask at approximately the 125 cm 3 level.
a Pour about 40 cm 3 of ammonia solution in turn into each of the three beakers on the bench. Aim to leave the flask full to the mark at 125 cm 3. The phenolphthalein will turn red, the lead nitrate will form a milky white precipitate of lead(II) hydroxide and the copper sulfate will form the deep blue [Cu(NH 3) 4(H 2O) 2] 2+ ion.
b Now use some sleight of hand to switch the ammonia-containing flask with that containing the nitric acid. The levels of liquid in both flasks should by now be about the same.
c Pour the contents of the three beakers in turn into the nitric acid flask and the colours will disappear, leaving a clear, colourless solution in the flask.
Only the most sharp-eyed observers will notice even the pale blue colour of the copper sulfate in the third beaker before the demonstration begins.
In the final part of the demonstration the solution in the third flask may be very pale blue due to the copper ions, and there may be a few specks of undissolved lead hydroxide, but the audience is unlikely to notice this.
Scale the volumes up if the audience is some way away.
Stand the phenolphthalein and copper sulfate flasks on white filter paper and the lead nitrate one on black paper for maximum impact.
The reactions taking place are:
3) 2(aq) + 2NH 3(aq) + 2H 2O(l) → Pb(OH) 2(s) + 2NH 4NO 3(aq)
2O) 6] 2+(aq) + 4NH 3(aq) → [Cu(NH 3) 4(H 2O) 2] 2+(aq) + 4H 2O(l)
These reactions are effectively reversed in acid:
2(s) + 2HNO 3(aq) → Pb(NO 3) 2(aq) + 2H 2O(l)
3) 4(H 2O) 2] 2+(aq) + 4H +(aq) + 4H 2O(l) → [Cu(H 2O) 6] 2+(aq) + 4NH 4 +(aq)
Go over the reactions with a suitable audience. Ask them to predict the contents of the second flask (after explaining the sleight of hand) and to perhaps to suggest ways of producing other colours.
Health & Safety checked
This Practical Chemistry resource was developed by the Nuffield Foundation and the Royal Society of Chemistry.
© Nuffield Foundation and the Royal Society of Chemistry
Page last updated October 2015