The Learn Chemistry Wiki has been shut down

Thanks for visiting. In order to consolidate and improve our education resources, we've shut down the Learn Chemistry Wiki, and this page is no longer available.

For detailed information on chemicals, see ChemSpider, the Royal Society of Chemistry’s free chemical structure database. ChemSpider also includes a structure drawing tool.

For spectra and spectroscopy information, see SpectraSchool, Learn Chemistry’s spectroscopy hub.

For detailed safety information, visit CLEAPSS (England, Wales and Northern Ireland) or SSERC (Scotland), advisory services providing health and safety advice and documentation for science in schools. Non-UK schools may wish to consult local authorities.

For more information, see our page on shutting down the Learn Chemistry Wiki.