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Lab:List of intermediate level Practical Chemistry experiments

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Contents

These experiments are for students who have already been introduced to basic chemical concepts. Students' ages will vary in different countries. In the UK they will generally be aged 14 to 16. They are organized by topic.

How science works

Practical and enquiry skills

Experiments in this section can be used to teach practical and enquiry skills including the collection, presentation, analysis and interpretation of primary data.

Based on the Practical Chemistry website: http://www.practicalchemistry.org/experiments/intermediate/how-science-works/topic-index.html

States of matter

Properties of solids, liquids and gases

The experiments in this section can be used to illustrate the properties of solids, liquids and gases. The experiments are linked to simple particle theory and can be used illustrate and explain changes of state, gas pressure and diffusion.

Based on the Practical Chemistry website: http://www.practicalchemistry.org/experiments/intermediate/states-of-matter/topic-index.html

Structure and bonding

Properties of substances and types of bonding

The experiments in this section can be used to investigate how the properties of substances provide clues about the type of bonding involved as well as illustrating how bonding affects the structure, properties and uses of different materials.

Based on the Practical Chemistry website: http://www.practicalchemistry.org/experiments/intermediate/structure-and-bonding/topic-index.html

Elements, compounds and mixtures

Properties of elements and compounds

The experiments in this section can be used to illustrate the properties of elements and compounds and to provide examples of chemical change which can be explained by the rearrangement of atoms.

Based on the Practical Chemistry website: http://www.practicalchemistry.org/experiments/intermediate/elements-compounds-and-mixtures/topic-index.html

Separation and analysis

Methods of separating and analysing substances

The experiments in this section cover different methods of separating substances (e.g. filtration, distillation, chromatography) as well as chemical methods for identifying different substances.

Based on the Practical Chemistry website: http://www.practicalchemistry.org/experiments/intermediate/separation-and-analysis/topic-index.html

Periodic table

Trends in properties of elements and compounds

The experiments in this section can be used to illustrate the trends in the properties of the elements and their compounds. Group and Period trends are included.

Based on the Practical Chemistry website: http://www.practicalchemistry.org/experiments/intermediate/how-science-works/topic-index.html

Metals

Metal matters The experiments in this section cover the extraction of metals, common reactions of metals and the properties and uses of metals.

Based on the Practical Chemistry website: http://www.practicalchemistry.org/experiments/intermediate/metals/topic-index.html

Acids, alkalis and salts

Acid and alkali reactions

The experiments in this section cover the reactions of acids and alkalis to form soluble salts. The use of indicators is also covered.

Based on the Practical Chemistry website: http://practicalchemistry.org/experiments/intermediate/acids-alkalis-and-salts/topic-index.html

Ionic precipitation

Forming insoluble salts

The experiments in this section involve precipitation reactions to form insoluble salts.

Based on the Practical Chemistry website: http://practicalchemistry.org/experiments/intermediate/ionic-precipitation/topic-index.html

Solvents and solutions

Solubility

The experiments in this section include activities illustrating the variation of solubility of a solute with temperature, the formation of saturated solutions and the solubility of solutes in different solvents.

Chemicals from oil

Oil as a source of chemicals

The experiments in this section illustrate how useful chemicals can be obtained from crude oil e.g. fractional distillation and cracking. Experiments investigating the properties and uses of hydrocarbons, such as alkanes and alkenes, are also included.

Based on the Practical Chemistry website: http://practicalchemistry.org/experiments/intermediate/chemicals-from-oil/topic-index.html

Polymers

Polymers: making polymers, and their properties

The experiments in this section can be used to show how polymers are made and how the uses of polymers are related to their properties. Experiments include making ‘slime’ and investigating ‘hydrogels’ for example.

Based on the Practical Chemistry website: http://practicalchemistry.org/experiments/intermediate/polymers/topic-index.html

Alcohols, acids and esters

Alcohols: production, properties, and reactions

Experiments in this section cover the production, properties and reactions of alcohols, organic acids and esters. Experiments include fermentation reactions and the preparation of examples of esters which are used in flavours and fragrances.

Based on the Practical Chemistry website: http://practicalchemistry.org/experiments/introductory/solids-liquids-and-gases/topic-index.html

Oxidation and reduction

Corrosion and rusting

The experiments in this section illustrate oxidation and reduction processes such as corrosion and rusting.

Based on the Practical Chemistry website: http://practicalchemistry.org/experiments/intermediate/oxidation-and-reduction/topic-index.html

Electrolysis

Applications of electricity in chemistry

The activities in this section illustrate the many different applications of electricity in chemistry and include examples of electrolysis to extract and purify substances as well as experiments involving fuel cells, for example.

Based on the Practical Chemistry website: http://practicalchemistry.org/experiments/intermediate/electrolysis/topic-index.html

Energy changes and fuels

A topic about sources of energy and effects

The experiments in this section can be used to illustrate, for example, what makes useful fuel and how to measure the energy given out by different fuels. Also included are a range of experiments looking at different examples of exothermic and endothermic reactions.

Based on the Practical Chemistry website: http://practicalchemistry.org/experiments/intermediate/energy-changes-and-fuels/topic-index.html

Rates of reaction

Measuring chemical reaction speed

The experiments in this section illustrate different methods for measuring the speed of chemical reactions, for investigating the factors affecting the rate of a chemical reaction including the effect of catalysts.

Based on the Practical Chemistry website: http://practicalchemistry.org/experiments/intermediate/rates-of-reaction/topic-index.html

Reversible reactions

Reactions which go both ways

The experiments in this section can be used to demonstrate reversible reactions and reactions involving dynamic equilibria.

Based on the Practical Chemistry website: http://practicalchemistry.org/experiments/intermediate/reversible-reactions/topic-index.html

Colloids

Emulsions and other mixtures

The experiments in this section include examples of emulsions, emulsifiers, gels, suspensions, and foams and build on knowledge and understanding of mixtures.

Based on the Practical Chemistry website: http://practicalchemistry.org/experiments/intermediate/colloids/topic-index.html

Materials

Materials: investigating their properties and uses

Activities covering the investigation of the properties and uses of a wide range of materials such as plastics, fibres, ceramics, composites, glasses, metals are included.

Based on the Practical Chemistry website: http://practicalchemistry.org/experiments/intermediate/materials/topic-index.html

Food

Chemistry of food

The experiments in this section can be used to investigate the chemicals and chemistry involved in food, food production and cooking. Experiments included cover food additives (e.g flavourings and colourings), vitamins, preserving and preservatives and analysis techniques such as chromatography.

Based on the Practical Chemistry website: http://www.practicalchemistry.org/experiments/intermediate/how-science-works/topic-index.html

Formulae and equations

Consolidating knowledge and understanding of chemical formulae and balanced equations.

The activities in this section can be used to consolidate knowledge and understanding of chemical formulae and balanced equations.

Based on the Practical Chemistry website: http://practicalchemistry.org/experiments/intermediate/formulae-and-equations/topic-index.html

Chemical quantities

How to work out formulae and calculate quantity of product from reactions

The experiments in this section can be used to consolidate knowledge and understanding of, for example, how chemists work out the formulae of compounds or calculate how much product can be obtained in a reaction. Also included are titration experiments.

Based on the Practical Chemistry website: http://practicalchemistry.org/experiments/intermediate/chemical-quantities/topic-index.html