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Substance:Glucose

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  • Main ChemSpider page
  • Molecular formula: C6H12O6
  • Molar mass: 180.156
  • CAS Registry Number: 492-62-6
  • Appearance: D-(+)-Glucose, anhydrous, 99%; D-(+)-Glucose, anhydrous, 99%; white powder
  • Melting point: 153 to 156 °C
  • Boiling point: Not available
  • Solubility: Water, 1.2e+006 mg/L (30 deg C), 5e+005 mg/L (20 deg C)
  • Safety sheet: Not available
  • Spectra: ChemSpider (1H NMR, 13C NMR), NMRShiftDB 13C NMR, also check on SDBS. Add Spectra (Help).

From Wikipedia

Glucose (C6H12O6, also known as D-glucose, dextrose, or grape sugar) is a simple monosaccharide found in plants. It is one of the three dietary monosaccharides, along with fructose and galactose, that are absorbed directly into the bloodstream during digestion. It is an important carbohydrate in biology, which is indicated by the fact that cells use it as a secondary source of energy and a metabolic intermediate. Glucose is one of the main products of photosynthesis and fuels for cellular respiration.

Glucose exists in several different molecular structures, but all of these structures can be divided into two families of mirror-images (stereoisomers). Only one set of these isomers exists in nature, those derived from the particular chiral form of glucose that is denoted D-glucose, or D-glucose.

The chemical D-glucose is sometimes referred to as dextrose, a historical name that derives from dextrorotatory glucose because a solution of D-glucose in water rotates the plane of polarized light to the right (dextro). However, the D- in D-glucose refers to a chiral chemical similarity property in sugars, not the property of rotating light (for example, D-fructose rotates light to the left). For this reason, the D- and L- designations in sugars do not perfectly predict optical rotation, and do not refer to this property.

Starch and cellulose are polymers derived from the dehydration of D-glucose. The other stereoisomer, called L-glucose, is rarely found in nature.

The name "glucose" comes from the Greek word γλευχος, meaning "sweet wine, must". The suffix "-ose" denotes a sugar.

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Other names

alpha-D-Glucopyranose (IUPAC Name); alpha-Dextrose; alpha-D-Glucose; alpha-Glucose; d-glucose

References

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