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- Molecular formula: C6H12O6
- Molar mass: 180.156
- CAS Registry Number: 492-62-6
- Appearance: D-(+)-Glucose, anhydrous, 99%; D-(+)-Glucose, anhydrous, 99%; white powder
- Melting point: 153 to 156 °C
- Boiling point: Not available
- Solubility: Water, 1.2e+006 mg/L (30 deg C), 5e+005 mg/L (20 deg C)
- Safety sheet: Not available
- Spectra: ChemSpider (1H NMR, 13C NMR), NMRShiftDB 13C NMR, also check on SDBS. Add Spectra (Help).
Glucose (also known as dextrose, or grape sugar) is a simple aldosic monosaccharide found in plants. It is a monosaccharide that is absorbed directly into the bloodstream during digestion. It is an important carbohydrate in biology, which is indicated by the fact that cells use it as a secondary source of energy and a metabolic intermediate. Glucose is one of the main products of photosynthesis and fuels for cellular respiration.
Like all hexoses, glucose has the molecular formula C6H12O6. It has fifteen stereoisomers called aldohexoses that differ from it only by swapping the positions of the two substituents (-H and -OH) at one or more of four chiral centers (the four carbons at the center of the molecule). When all four chiral centers are altered, the result is a mirror image of the original molecule that has similar chemical properties; however, the interaction of this with other compounds, as in the body, is very different. Only one of the two mirrored forms, called D-glucose, is generally encountered in nature.
Like all aldohexoses, glucose also has a more diverse set of structural isomers, including a broader set of hexoses and inositols. However - unlike any of the stereoisomers - a few structural isomers, the ring-shaped glucopyranoses and glucofuranoses, are rapidly produced and continually interconvert whenever glucose is dissolved in water, though they can be crystallized as separate compounds. Because these were described long after glucose had been identified, they are usually called cyclic forms of glucose. The open chain form of glucose, with systematic name (2R,3S,4R,5R)-2,3,4,5,6-Pentahydroxyhexanal, contains the free reactive aldehyde that makes glucose a reducing sugar and mediates these reactions.
The chemical D-glucose is sometimes referred to as dextrose, a historical name that derives from dextrorotatory glucose because a solution of D-glucose in water rotates the plane of polarized light to the right (dextro). However, the D- in D-glucose refers to a chiral chemical similarity property in sugars, not the property of rotating light (for example, D-fructose rotates light to the left). For this reason, the D- and L- designations in sugars do not perfectly predict optical rotation, and do not refer to this property.
alpha-D-Glucopyranose (IUPAC Name); alpha-Dextrose; alpha-D-Glucose; alpha-Glucose; d-glucose
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