Periodic Table > Flerovium
 

Terminology


Allotropes
Some elements exist in several different structural forms, these are called allotropes.


For more information on Murray Robertson’s image see Uses and properties facts below.

 

Fact box terminology


Group
Elements appear in columns or ‘groups’ in the periodic table. Members of a group typically have similar properties and electron configurations in their outer shell.


Period
Elements are laid out into rows or ‘periods’ so that similar chemical behaviour is observed in columns.


Block
Elements are organised into blocks by the orbital type in which the outer electrons are found. These blocks are named for the characteristic spectra they produce: sharp, principal, diffuse, and fundamental.


Atomic Number
The number of protons in the nucleus.


Atomic Radius/non -bonded (Å)
based on Van der Waals forces (where several isotopes exist, a value is presented for the most prevalent isotope). These values were calculated using a multitude of methods including crystallographic data, gas kinetic collision cross sections, critical densities, liquid state properties, for more details please refer to the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics.


Electron Configuration
The arrangements of electrons above the last (closed shell) noble gas.


Isotopes
Elements are defined by the number of protons in its centre (nucleus), whilst the number of neutrons present can vary. The variations in the number of neutrons will create elements of different mass which are known as isotopes.


Melting Point (oC)
The temperature at which the solid-liquid phase change occurs.


Melting Point (K)
The temperature at which the solid-liquid phase change occurs.


Melting Point (oF)
The temperature at which the solid-liquid phase change occurs.


Boiling Point (oC)
The temperature at which the liquid-gas phase change occurs.


Boiling Point (K)
The temperature at which the liquid-gas phase change occurs.


Boiling Point (oF)
The temperature at which the liquid-gas phase change occurs.


Sublimation
Elements that do not possess a liquid phase at atmospheric pressure (1 atm) are described as going through a sublimation process.


Density (g cm-3)
Density is the mass of a substance that would fill 1 cm3 at room temperature.


Relative Atomic Mass
The mass of an atom relative to that of Carbon-12. This is approximately the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. Where more than one isotope exists the value given is the abundance weighted average.


Key Isotopes (% abundance)
An element must by definition have a fixed number of protons in its nucleus, and as such has a fixed atomic number, however variants of an element can exist with differing numbers of neutrons, and hence a different atomic masses (e.g. 12C has 6 protons and 6 neutrons and 13C has 6 protons and 7 neutrons).


CAS number
The Chemical Abstracts Service registry number is a unique identifier of a particular chemical, designed to prevent confusion arising from different languages and naming systems (where several isotopes exist, a value is presented for the most prevalent isotope).

Fact box

 
Group 14  Melting point Unknown 
Period Boiling point Unknown 
Block Density (g cm-3) Unknown 
Atomic number 114  Relative atomic mass [289]  
State at room temperature Solid  Key isotopes 289Fl 
Electron configuration [Rn] 5f146d107s27p2  CAS number 54085-16-4 
ChemSpider ID - ChemSpider is a free chemical structure database
 

Uses and properties terminology


Image Explanation

Murray Robertson is the artist behind the images which make up Visual Elements. This is where the artist explains his interpretation of the element and the science behind the picture.


Natural Abundance

Where this element is most commonly found in nature.


Biological Roles

The elements role within the body of humans, animals and plants. Also functionality in medical advancements both today and years ago.


Appearance

The description of the element in its natural form.

Uses and properties

 
Image explanation
The image features an abstracted form inspired by the colonnade of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), where the element was discovered. The two main colours represent the creation of the element from calcium and plutonium. The background features abstracted particle trails and sections from the ground plan of the accelerator at JINR.
Appearance
A highly radioactive metal, of which only a few atoms have ever been made.
Uses
At present, it is only used in research.
Biological role
It has no known biological role.
Natural abundance
Flerovium can be formed in nuclear reactors.
 
Atomic data terminology

Atomic radius/non -bonded (Å)
Based on Van der Waals forces (where several isotopes exist, a value is presented for the most prevalent isotope). These values were calculated using a multitude of methods including crystallographic data, gas kinetic collision cross sections, critical densities, liquid state properties,for more details please refer to the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics.


Electron affinity (kJ mol-1)
The energy released when an additional electron is attached to the neutral atom and a negative ion is formed (where several isotopes exist, a value is presented for the most prevalent isotope). *


Electronegativity (Pauling scale)
The degree to which an atom attracts electrons towards itself, expressed on a relative scale as a function bond dissociation energies, Ed in eV. χA - χB =(eV)-1/2sqrt(Ed(AB)-[Ed(AA)+Ed(BB)]/2), with χH set as 2.2 (where several isotopes exist, a value is presented for the most prevalent isotope).


1st Ionisation energy (kJ mol-1)
The minimum energy required to remove an electron from a neutral atom in its ground state (where several isotopes exist, a value is presented for the most prevalent isotope).


Covalent radius (Å)
The size of the atom within a covalent bond, given for typical oxidation number and coordination (where several isotopes exist, a value is presented for the most prevalent isotope). ***

Atomic data

 
Atomic radius, non-bonded (Å) Unknown Covalent radius (Å) 1.43
Electron affinity (kJ mol-1) Unknown Electronegativity
(Pauling scale)
Unknown
Ionisation energies
(kJ mol-1)
 
1st
-
2nd
-
3rd
-
4th
-
5th
-
6th
-
7th
-
8th
-
 

Mining/Sourcing Information

Data for this section of the data page has been provided by the British Geological Survey. To review the full report please click here or please look at their website here.


Key for numbers generated


Governance indicators

1 (low) = 0 to 2

2 (medium-low) = 3 to 4

3 (medium) = 5 to 6

4 (medium-high) = 7 to 8

5 (high) = 9


Reserve distribution (%)

1 (low) = 0 to 30 %

2 (medium-low) = 30 to 45 %

3 (medium) = 45 to 60 %

4 (medium-high) = 60 to 75 %

5 (high) = 75 %

(Where data are unavailable an arbitrary score of 2 was allocated. For example, Be, As, Na, S, In, Cl, Ca and Ge are allocated a score of 2 since reserve base information is unavailable. Reserve base data are also unavailable for coal; however, reserve data for 2008 are available from the Energy Information Administration (EIA).)


Production Concentration

1 (low) = 0 to 30 %

2 (medium-low) = 30 to 45 %

3 (medium) = 45 to 60 %

4 (medium-high) = 60 to 75 %

5 (high) = 75 %


Crustal Abundance

1 (low) = 100 to 1000 ppm

2 (medium-low) =10 to 100 ppm

3 (medium) = 1 to 10 ppm

4 (medium-high) = 0.1 to 1 ppm

5 (high) = 0.1 ppm

(Where data are unavailable an arbitrary score of 2 was allocated. For example, He is allocated a score of 2 since crustal abundance data is unavailable.)


Explanations for terminology


Crustal Abundance (ppm)

The abundance of an element in the Earth's crust in parts-per-million (ppm) i.e. The number of atoms of this element per 1 million atoms of crust.


Sourced

The country with the largest reserve base.


Reserve distribution (%)

This is a measure of the spread of future supplies, recording the percentage of a known resource likely to be available in the intermediate future (reserve base) located in the top three countries.


Production Concentrations

This reports the percentage of an element produced in the top three countries. The higher the value, the larger risk there is to supply.


Political stability of top producer

The World Bank produces a global percentile rank of political stability. The scoring system is given below, and the values for all three production countries were summed.


Relative Supply Risk Index

The Crustal Abundance, Reserve distribution (%), Production Concentration and Governance Factor scores are summed and then divided by 2, to provide an overall Relative Supply Risk Index.

Supply risk

 
Relative supply risk Unknown
Crustal abundance (ppm) Unknown
Recycling rate (%) Unknown
Substitutability Unknown
Production concentration (%) Unknown
Reserve distribution (%) Unknown
Top 3 producers
  • Unknown
Top 3 reserve holders
  • Unknown
Political stability of top producer Unknown
Political stability of top reserve holder Unknown
 

Oxidation states and isotopes


Key for Isotopes


Half Life
  y years
  d days
  h hours
  m minutes
  s seconds
Mode of decay
  α alpha particle emission
  β negative beta (electron) emission
  β+ positron emission
  EC orbital electron capture
  sf spontaneous fission
  ββ double beta emission
  ECEC double orbital electron capture

Terminology


Common Oxidation states
The oxidation state of an atom is a measure of the degree of oxidation of an atom. It is defined as being the charge that an atom would have if all bonds were ionic. Free atoms have an oxidation state of 0, and the sum of oxidation numbers within a substance must equal the overall charge.


Important Oxidation states
The most common oxidation states of an element in its compounds.


Isotopes
Elements are defined by the number of protons in its centre (nucleus), whilst the number of neutrons present can vary. The variations in the number of neutrons will create elements of different mass which are known as isotopes.

Oxidation states and isotopes

 
Common oxidation states
Isotopes Isotope Atomic mass Natural abundance (%) Half life Mode of decay
  289Fl 289.187 - ~ 2.1 s  α 
 

Pressure and temperature - advanced terminology


Specific heat capacity (J kg-1 K-1)

Specific heat capacity is the amount of energy needed to change the temperature of a kilogram of a substance by 1 K.


Young's modulus (GPa)

Young's modulus is a measure of the stiffness of a substance, that is, it provides a measure of how difficult it is to extend a material, with a value given by the ratio of tensile strength to tensile strain.


Shear modulus (GPa)

The shear modulus of a material is a measure of how difficult it is to deform a material, and is given by the ratio of the shear stress to the shear strain.


Bulk modulus (GPa)

The bulk modulus is a measure of how difficult to compress a substance. Given by the ratio of the pressure on a body to the fractional decrease in volume.


Vapour Pressure (Pa)

Vapour pressure is the measure of the propensity of a substance to evaporate. It is defined as the equilibrium pressure exerted by the gas produced above a substance in a closed system.

Pressure and temperature data – advanced

 
Specific heat capacity
(J kg-1 K-1)
Unknown Young's modulus (GPa) Unknown
Shear modulus (GPa) Unknown Bulk modulus (GPa) Unknown
Vapour pressure  
Temperature (K)
400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400
Pressure (Pa)
- - - - - - - - - - -
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History

There are four known isotopes of flerovium with mass numbers 286-289. The longest-lived is 289 and it has a half-life of 2.6 seconds. Nuclear theory suggests that isotope 298, with 184 neutrons, should be much more stable but that has yet to be made.


Despite several attempts to make element 114, it was only in 1998 that a team led by Yuri Oganessian and Vladimir Utyonkov at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Russia produced it by bombarding plutonium with calcium. It needed 5 billion billion (5 x 1018) atoms of calcium to be fired at the target to produce a single atom of flerovium, in an experiment lasting 40 days. A few more two atoms were produced the following year.

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Podcasts

Listen to Flerovium Podcast
Transcript :

Chemistry in its element - Flerovium


Since this podcast was first published, the name of this element has been ratified as flerovium (symbol Fl) by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (Iupac). The name recognises Russian physicist Georgiy Flerov, who discovered the spontaneous fission of uranium. Flerov also gives his name to the laboratory at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia, where the element was first made

(Promo) 

You're listening to Chemistry in its element brought to you by Chemistry World, the magazine of the Royal Society of Chemistry 

(End promo) 

Meera Senthilingam 

This week we are element spotting with Brian Clegg

Brian Clegg

It's easy to accuse the scientists who produce new, very heavy elements of being chemistry's train spotters. Just as train spotters spend hours watching for a particular locomotive so they can underline it in their book, it may seem that these chemists laboriously produce an atom or two of a superheavy element as an exercise in ticking the box. But element 114 has provided more than one surprise, showing why such elements are well worth investigating.

This is one of the elements that is still waiting to have a proper name assigned to it, so it remains for the moment ununquadium (just one-one-four-ium in truncated Latin), with the symbol Uuq, until it receives a more aesthetically pleasing label.

Element 114 sits in an island of stability, a position in the periodic table where a spherical nuclear configuration suggests that half lives should be relatively long. That word 'relatively' is important. Where, for instance, darmstadtium, which precedes the island of stability, has a typical half life measured in microseconds, element 114's isotope with atomic mass 289 stays around for seconds at a time.

In principle, there is an isotope of element 114 that should do even better. The expectation, long before 114 was even produced, was that ununquadium 298 should be particularly stable. The nucleus of this isotope would have 114 protons and 184 neutrons, which should provide complete energy levels in the nucleus and hence unusual stability. Ununquadium 298 has a predicted half life that could reach into thousands of years - remarkable for the transfermium elements, which are generally the mayflies of the periodic table.

To date we haven't been able to test this thesis, because no isotope 298 has been produced. The first sighting of element 114 was in 1998 at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research at Dubna in Russia. This doesn't mean that we can look forward to dubnium as a name for the element, this is already assigned to element 105.

Using a plutonium 244 target, produced by Kenton Moody at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California, the team lead by Yuri Oganessian and Vladimir Utyonkov in Dubna took aim with a stream of high energy calcium 48 ions. This rare, but naturally occurring isotope of calcium was blasted into the plutonium for 40 days, during which 5 million trillion ions were shot down the accelerator. Just one, single atom of the isotope 289 of element 114 was discovered, which took 30.4 seconds to decay.

The team at Dubna have since produced tiny quantities of isotopes 286, 287 and 288. Interestingly the half life of 30 seconds for that first atom has never been reproduced - all subsequent ununquadium 289 has had a half life of around 2.6 seconds, leading to speculation that the first experiment produced a special excited state of the nucleus called a nuclear isomer, a state which typical has an extra-long half life.

Unlike many transfermium elements, element 114 was predicted to fit well into its group in the periodic table. It is positioned in group 14, underneath lead. The first great success of the periodic table was Mendeleev's prediction of the existence of elements that had yet to be discovered. There were gaps in his table where he placed elements that he named after the element immediately above. He constructed the names by adding the prefix eka, which is Sanskrit for the number 'one'. So, Mendeleev said, we should have eka-boron, eka-aluminium, eka-manganese and eka-silicon.

Eka-silicon, for instance, is now called germanium and measured up well to Mendeleev's predictions. Similarly, for a long time it was assumed that element 114 would be eka-lead, with properties like that metal. Remarkably, however, although atoms have only been produced in ones and twos, there is some evidence that ununquadium behaves more like a noble gas than a metal.

This concept, still to be fully explored, is based on experiments where the element 114 atoms are passed down a tube with an inner coating of gold. Along the length of the tube, the temperature gradually decreases, dropping from 15 degrees Celsius to a chilly minus 185 degrees, gradually reducing the energy of the atoms passing along, making them easier to capture. The prediction is that a metal with lead-like properties should bind onto the gold easily, so will not get far down the tube. But a noble gas would have to be significantly chilled to undergo adsorption from the weak van der Waals force.

Rather than behaving like lead, element 114 seems to make it to the cold end of the tube before being captured, its position detected when it decays after a second or two. This experiment, conducted by Heinz Gäggeler of the Paul Scherrer Institute in Villigen, Switzerland, but working at Dubna is still only provisional, but the noble gas behaviour may be a result of relativistic effects.

Einstein's special relativity predicts that particles will get heavier and heavier as their velocity gets closer to the speed of light. A particle accelerated to around 42 per cent of the speed of light, for instance, will have a 10 per cent increase in mass. The expectation is that with an unusually high number of protons in the nucleus, the electrons will be moving fast enough to have relativistic effects that change the profile of their orbit, and hence the element's chemical properties.

With such few atoms to experiment with, the result is not yet certain. But something we do know for sure is that ununquadium is not just of interest to chemical train spotters.

Meera Senthilingam 

That was science writer and chemical spotter Brian Clegg with the chemistry of element 114. Now next week, a dangerous yet useful element. 

Andrea Sella

Because it's so volatile, you need to be really careful when you handle it since if you inhale it, it will decompose releasing poisonous carbon monoxide and dumping metallic nickel into your lungs. So it's very dangerous indeed. But in a way, that's the beauty of it: nickel carbonyl is incredibly fragile. If you heat it up it shakes itself to pieces, and you get both the nickel and the carbon monoxide back. So what Mond had was a deliciously simple way to separate and purify nickel from any other metal. And what is more, he could recycle the carbon monoxide.

Meera Senthilingam 

And to find out the uses and chemistry of the pure form of nickel, as well as its compounds, join UCL's Andrea Sella in next week's Chemistry in its element. Until then I'm Meera Senthilingam and thank you for listening.

(Promo) 

Chemistry in its element is brought to you by the Royal Society of Chemistry and produced by thenakedscientists dot com. There's more information and other episodes of Chemistry in its element on our website at chemistryworld dot org forward slash elements. 

(End promo) 

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References

 
Images:  Visual Elements © Murray Robertson 2011
Mining and Sourcing data:  British Geological Survey – natural environment research council.
Text:  John Emsley Nature’s Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements, Oxford University Press, 2nd Edition, 2011.
Additional information for platinum, gold, neodymium and dysprosium obtained from Material Value Consultancy Ltd www.matvalue.com
Data: CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, CRC Press, 92nd Edition, 2011.
G. W. C. Kaye and T. H. Laby Tables of Physical and Chemical Constants, Longman, 16th Edition, 1995.
Members of the RSC can access these books through our library.