KC
Introduction The use of salt in cooking (1) The use of salt in cooking (2) By how much does salt increase the boiling point of water? Is all salt the same? "Low sodium salt substitutes What affects the colour and texture of cooked vegetables? Should beans be cooked with the lid on or off? The chemistry of baking powder The structure of ice and water Why do pans stick? Enzymes and jellies The chemistry of flavour Chemical changes during cooking The science of ice cream Asparagus pee How hot are chilli peppers?


Format of video clips
The 16 video clips (© 2002 Discovery Communications Inc.) that accompany the book Kitchen Chemistry can be accessed from this site in three formats:

1. wmv(2) – 2MB Windows Media® Video files for playback with Windows Media® Player. Quick to download (approx. 30 sec with a broadband connection or 5 min with a 56 k modem) and ideal for previewing the content for lesson planning.
2. wmv(15) – 15MB Windows Media® Video files (approx. 4 min to download with a broadband connection or 40 min with a 56 k modem). Excellent quality, suitable for whole class viewing.
3. MPEG – 35MB MPEG files (approx. 10 min to download on a broadband connection or 1.5 hrs with a 56 k modem). Excellent quality, suitable for whole class viewing.
4. MOV(2) – 2MB QuickTime Movie files for playback with Apple's QuickTime ® Player. Quick to download (approx. 30 sec with a broadband connection or 5 min with a 56 k modem) and ideal for previewing the content for lesson planning.
5. MOV(15) – 15MB QuickTime Movie file (approx. 4 min to download with a broadband connection or 40 min with a 56 k modem). Excellent quality, suitable for whole class viewing.

The RSC thanks the Discovery Channel (www.discovery.com) for providing the video clips for this resource, and Twofour Productions for producing the clips.


V01 Using Salt in cooking
This is probably the key clip. In it Heston Blumenthal describes a ‘defining moment’ in his career as a chef when he began to use science in his cooking and started to carry out experiments rather than follow the received wisdom. This occurred when he first thought to ask why salt is always added to the water when cooking green vegetables.

Media: wmv(2) / wmv(15) / MPEG / MOV (2) / MOV (15)


V02 What are jellies?
Heston Blumenthal discusses gelatine as a setting agent for various types of jelly.

Media: wmv(2) / wmv(15) / MPEG / MOV (2) / MOV (15)


V03 Pineapple jelly
Gelatine-based jellies will not set if they are made with pineapple, which contains an enzyme that denatures the protein in gelatine. Heston Blumenthal shows the effect of this enzyme on the proteins in his own mouth and shows a way to avoid the non-setting problem using chillies.

Media: wmv(2) / wmv(15) / MPEG / MOV (2) / MOV (15)


V04 What is flavour?
This reinforces the idea that flavour is taste plus aroma and shows tasting experiments in which a blindfolded taster holds his nose and becomes unable to identify flavour.

Media: wmv(2) / wmv(15) / MPEG / MOV (2) / MOV (15)


V05 Flavour, taste and aroma
This shows professional tasters also unable to identify flavour when their noses are blocked.
Media: wmv(2) / wmv(15) / MPEG / MOV (2) / MOV (15)


V06 The taste of food
Heston Blumenthal discusses with a scientist colleague, Peter Barham from Bristol University, the five taste sensations (sweet, sour, bitter, salty and the recently-accepted umami) and how our responses to them have evolved.
Media: wmv(2) / wmv(15) / MPEG / MOV (2) / MOV (15)


V07 Cooking asparagus
This explains that asparagus should be cooked in butter rather than water because the molecules responsible for its flavour are water-soluble and therefore literally go down the drain if asparagus is cooked in water.

Media: wmv(2) / wmv(15) / MPEG / MOV (2) / MOV (15)


V08 Chocolat coulant
Heston Blumenthal describes how to make a pudding containing chocolate and cheese and explains why this unlikely-sounding combination tastes good.

Media: wmv(2) / wmv(15) / MPEG / MOV (2) / MOV (15)


V09 Cooking meat
This shows experiments in which different cuts of meat are cooked under different conditions to determine the optimum cooking temperature.

Media: wmv(2) / wmv(15) / MPEG / MOV (2) / MOV (15)


V10 Maillard browning
Browning of the surface cooked meat is caused by the Maillard reactions, which take place at temperatures well above the optimum for cooking the bulk of the meat. Heston Blumenthal uses a blowtorch to bring these reactions about.

Media: wmv(2) / wmv(15) / MPEG / MOV (2) / MOV (15)


V11 Making ice cream
Heston Blumenthal discusses the ingredients of ice cream and the pitfalls that can occur while making it – formation of lactose crystals, denaturing of egg proteins and formation of large ice crystals.

Media: wmv(2) / wmv(15) / MPEG / MOV (2) / MOV (15)


V12 The flavour of ice cream
The flavour molecules of chocolate are fat-soluble, while vanilla is water-soluble. Heston Blumenthal shows how to make chocolate and vanilla ice cream in which the chocolate flavour is released more slowly than the vanilla.
Media: wmv(2) / wmv(15) / MPEG / MOV (2) / MOV (15)


V13 The ice cream world record
Using liquid nitrogen as a coolant allows ice cream to be made in a Guinness world record time.

Media: wmv(2) / wmv(15) / MPEG / MOV (2) / MOV (15)


V14 The role of calcium ions
Graphics show how Ca2+ ions can alter the texture of foods by binding together starch and/or protein molecules.

Media: wmv(2) / wmv(15) / MPEG / MOV (2) / MOV (15)


V15 Flavour profiles
This leads on from clip V08 and shows the analysis of volatile flavour molecules by GCMS (gas chromatography mass spectrometry), leading to the idea that ingredients with several flavour components in common taste good together.

Media: wmv(2) / wmv(15) / MPEG / MOV (2) / MOV (15)


V16 Chemicals in food
Heston Blumenthal explains that all foods are made up of chemicals and shows some examples from a typical kitchen.

Media: wmv(2) / wmv(15) / MPEG / MOV (2) / MOV (15)

   
© RSC 2005