An oscillating reaction
ions are used to oxidise Bromate(V)
to propane-1,3-dioic acid carbon dioxide in the presence of ions as catalyst. The reaction mixture manganese(II) in colour between red-brown and colourless with an period of about 20 seconds. oscillates
Oscillating reactions can be both dramatic and are worth including at an Open Day to stimulate an interest in chemistry. This particular demonstration is fairly straightforward to set up, works reliably, and is based on the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction.
It takes about 10 minutes of demonstration time, but rather more time to set up.
For each demonstration:
Eye protection: goggles
Disposable gloves (preferably nitrile) - optional
Beaker (1 dm
Magnetic stirrer (optional: Note 1)
Weighing boats or watch-glasses, 3
Balance, reading to 0.1 g
sulfuric(VI) acid (CORROSIVE), 75 cm 3
Propane-1,3-dioic (malonic) acid (HARMFUL), 9 g
Potassium bromate(V) (TOXIC, OXIDISING), 8 g
Manganese(II) sulfate-1-water (HARMFUL, DANGEROUS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT), 1.8 g
Deionised or distilled water, 750 cm
Refer to Health & Safety and Technical notes section below for additional information.
Health & Safety and Technical notes
Read our standard health & safety guidance
Wear goggles and disposable gloves (optional)
sulfuric(VI) acid, H 2SO 4(l), (CORROSIVE) - see CLEAPSS Hazcard.
Propane-1,3-dioic (malonic) acid, HOOCCH 2COOH(s), (HARMFUL) - see CLEAPSS Hazcard.
Potassium bromate(V), KBrO 3(s), (TOXIC and OXIDISING) - see CLEAPSS Hazcard.
Manganese(II) sulfate-1-water, MnSO 4.H 2O (HARMFUL) - see CLEAPSS Hazcard.
1 The use of a magnetic stirrer is optional but highly recommended since the use of a glass stirring rod will detract from the colour changes occurring during the demonstration. Those of a cautious disposition might like to try out the demonstration in private first, before submitting it to a public demonstration.
Before the demonstration
a Place 750 cm 3 deionised/distilled water in the beaker.
b Slowly, and with stirring, add 75 cm 3 concentrated sulfuric acid carefully. The mixture will heat up to about 50 °C.
c Allow the diluted acid to cool back to room temperature. This will take some time.
d Weigh out separately 9 g of propane-1,3-dioic (malonic) acid, 8 g of potassium bromate(V) and 1.8 g of manganese(II) sulfate-1-water on weighing boats or watch-glasses.
a Place the beaker of dilute sulfuric acid on a magnetic stirrer and stir the solution fast enough for a vortex to form.
b Add the malonic acid and potassium bromate(V).
c When these have dissolved, add the manganese(II) sulfate and observe what happens.
d A red colour should develop immediately. This will disappear after about one minute.
e Thereafter the colour will oscillate from red to colourless with a time period of about 20 seconds for a complete oscillation. This will continue with a gradually increasing time period for over ten minutes – long enough for most audiences to lose interest.
A white background helps to make the colour changes more vivid.
A member of the audience with a stopwatch could be asked to time the oscillation. The time period of 20 seconds mentioned above refers to an ambient temperature of about 20 °C. If the temperature is higher than this then the time period drops accordingly.
The reaction will
not work if tap water is used instead of deionised water. Chloride ions, via the addition of a pinch of potassium chloride or dilute hydrochloric acid, will immediately stop the oscillations. The use of clean apparatus is therefore essential.
The reaction mixture can be washed down the sink with plenty of tap water after the demonstration.
The theory of oscillating reactions is complex and not fully understood. However, this particular process is an example of a class of processes known as Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reactions. The overall reaction is usually given as:
2(COOH) 2(aq) + 4BrO 3 –(aq) → 4Br –(aq) + 9CO 2(g) + 6H 2O(l)
The oxidation of the malonic acid by the bromate(V) ions is catalysed by manganese(II) ions, and manganese(III) ions are produced as intermediates.
Some references claim that the red colour is due to molecular bromine which could be produced via the following two steps:
–(aq) + BrO 3 –(aq) + 2H +(aq) → HBrO 2 + HBrO(aq)
–(aq) + HBrO(aq) + H +(aq) → Br 2(aq) + H 2O(l)
However, other detailed studies of the processes occurring give a variety of colourless bromate ions and bromic acid molecules as intermediates, rather than bromine itself, so it is therefore possible that the red colour is due to something else, maybe the transient existence of Mn
3+ions which are known to be red/purple in colour.
The colour oscillation is brought about by two autocatalytic steps, which are highly complex in nature and have been the cause of several advanced research projects over the past 30 years or so. Some web references are given below.
For the needs of the likely target audience, an analogy with predator-prey relationships might be one way to give students some idea of what is going on. For example, a population of rabbits (analogous to the red manganese(III) ions) will increase rapidly (exponentially) if there is plenty of food (reactants). However, the plentiful supply of rabbits will stimulate a rapid increase in the fox population (another intermediate that reacts with the manganese(III) ions) which will then deplete the rabbits. Lacking rabbits, the foxes will die, bringing us back to square one, ready for a rapid increase in rabbits and so on.
Health & Safety checked, 2016
This Practical Chemistry resource was developed by the Nuffield Foundation and the Royal Society of Chemistry.
© Nuffield Foundation and the Royal Society of Chemistry
Lycée Faidherbe de Lille
Other relevant references can be found by searching "Belousov Zhabotinsky" via Google.
Page last updated October 2015