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Lab:List of advanced level Practical Chemistry experiments

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Contents

Experiments for those already experienced in basic chemistry. Student ages will vary in different countries. In the UK they are likely to be aged 17 to 19, and to be studying A-level, Highers, or the International Baccalaureat. They are organized by topic.

Method and measurement

The activities in this section can be used to explore some aspects of ‘How Science Works’. Several of the experiments focus on making reliable and valid observations and measurements with appropriate precision and accuracy. Investigative activities are also included.

Based on the Practical Chemistry website: http://practicalchemistry.org/experiments/advanced/method-and-measurement/topic-index.html

Kinetic theory

The experiments in this section provide opportunities to extend knowledge and understanding of states of matter, changes of state and collision theory.

Based on the Practical Chemistry website: http://practicalchemistry.org/experiments/advanced/kinetic-theory/topic-index.html

Bonding, structure and properties

This section includes a range of activities and experiments which focus on how structure and bonding affect the properties of materials.

Aspects covered include: giant and simple structures, amorphous and crystalline substances, polymeric materials and the effects of intermolecular attractions.

Based on the Practical Chemistry website: http://practicalchemistry.org/experiments/advanced/bonding-structure-and-properties/topic-index.html

Analysis

Experiments in this category cover both qualitative and quantitative analysis. Activities include, for example, colorimetric analyses, titrations, chromatography as well as a variety of observation exercises.

Based on the Practical Chemistry website: http://practicalchemistry.org/experiments/advanced/analysis/topic-index.html

Periodic Table and periodicity

Patterns in the Periodic Table

The experiments in this section focus on the patterns in the Periodic Table and include, for example, experiments to explore the properties of the elements and compounds in Period 3.

Based on the Practical Chemistry website: http://practicalchemistry.org/experiments/advanced/periodic-table-and-periodicity/topic-index.html

s–block elements and compounds

Physical and chemical properties of the elements and compounds of Groups 1 and 2

The experiments and activities in this section focus on the physical and chemical properties of the elements and compounds of Groups 1 and 2. Flame colours, characteristic reactions and context-related experiments are included.

Based on the Practical Chemistry website: http://practicalchemistry.org/experiments/advanced/sblock-elements-and-compounds/topic-index.html

d–block elements and compounds

Characteristic properties of the transition elements

The characteristic properties of the transition elements are the focus of the experiments in this section. Complex formation, coloured compounds, catalytic behaviour and other aspects of transition metal chemistry are included.

Based on the Practical Chemistry website: http://practicalchemistry.org/experiments/advanced/dblock-elements-and-compounds/topic-index.html

p–block elements and compounds

The physical and chemical properties of the elements in the p-block of the Periodic Table (Groups 4 to 0) are the focus of the experiments in this section.

Based on the Practical Chemistry website: http://practicalchemistry.org/experiments/advanced/pblock-elements-and-compounds/topic-index.html

Acid-base reactions

Advanced experiments on acids and bases

Strong and weak acid-base behaviour, pH, indicator chemistry and buffer solutions are covered in the experiments in this section.

Based on the Practical Chemistry website: http://practicalchemistry.org/experiments/advanced/acid-base-reactions/topic-index.html

Solubility and solutions

Experiments in this section cover the solubility of solutes in aqueous and non-aqueous solvents, solubility curves and sparingly soluble salts (Ksp). Other activities also include making solutions of known concentration and standardising solutions.

Based on the Practical Chemistry website: http://practicalchemistry.org/experiments/advanced/solubility-and-solutions/topic-index.html

Organic chemistry

Based on the Practical Chemistry website: http://practicalchemistry.org/experiments/advanced/organic-chemistry/topic-index.html

Redox reactions

The experiments in this category cover a range of oxidation and reduction reactions.

Based on the Practical Chemistry website: http://practicalchemistry.org/experiments/advanced/redox-reactions/topic-index.html

Electrochemistry

Electrochemical cells and electrolysis

This section contains a range of practical experiments involving electrochemical cells and electrolysis.

Based on the Practical Chemistry website: http://practicalchemistry.org/experiments/advanced/electrochemistry/topic-index.html

Energy and entropy

Energy changes in chemical reactions

The activities in this category include experiments focusing on energy changes in chemical reactions. Exothermic and endothermic processes feature including combustion reactions, neutralisation reactions and solution formation. Other activities also focus on a consideration of entropy changes.

Based on the Practical Chemistry website: http://practicalchemistry.org/experiments/advanced/energy-and-entropy/topic-index.html

Reaction kinetics

Measuing the rate of chemical reactions and investigating the factors affecting rate.

The experiments in this section provide a range of opportunities to measure the rate of chemical reactions and to investigate the factors affecting rate. Initial rate methods, orders of reaction, rate mechanisms and the effect of temperature are covered as well as experiments involving catalysts (including enzymes).

Based on the Practical Chemistry website: http://practicalchemistry.org/experiments/advanced/reaction-kinetics/topic-index.html

Equilibrium

Advanced experiments on equilibrium

The activities in this category include experiments relating to equilibria in solution, gaseous equilibria, acid-base equilibria and redox equilibria.

Based on the Practical Chemistry website: http://practicalchemistry.org/experiments/advanced/equilibrium/topic-index.html

Materials science

Preparation and properties of materials

The activities in this section focus on the preparation and properties of a wide range of materials including, for example, polymers, glasses, ceramics and alloys.

Based on the Practical Chemistry website: http://practicalchemistry.org/experiments/advanced/materials-science/topic-index.html

Biochemistry

Based on the Practical Chemistry website: http://practicalchemistry.org/experiments/advanced/biochemistry/topic-index.html

Environmental chemistry

Based on the Practical Chemistry website: Chemical industry

Chemical industry

Chemistry in industrial contexts

The practical activities in this section focus on applications (e.g. synthesis and analysis) of chemistry in industrial contexts.

Based on the Practical Chemistry website: http://www.practicalchemistry.org/experiments/intermediate/how-science-works/topic-index.html

Amount of substance

The mole concept

This section includes a wide range of practical activities providing opportunities to apply the concept of the mole. Empirical and molecular formulae, reacting masses, % yield, volumes of gases and titration calculations are all covered.

Based on the Practical Chemistry website: http://practicalchemistry.org/experiments/advanced/amount-of-substance/topic-index.html