Periodic Table > Rutherfordium
 

Terminology


Allotropes
Some elements exist in several different structural forms, these are called allotropes.


For more information on Murray Robertson’s image see Uses and properties facts below.

 

Fact box terminology


Group
Elements appear in columns or ‘groups’ in the periodic table. Members of a group typically have similar properties and electron configurations in their outer shell.


Period
Elements are laid out into rows or ‘periods’ so that similar chemical behaviour is observed in columns.


Block
Elements are organised into blocks by the orbital type in which the outer electrons are found. These blocks are named for the characteristic spectra they produce: sharp, principal, diffuse, and fundamental.


Atomic Number
The number of protons in the nucleus.


Atomic Radius/non -bonded (Å)
based on Van der Waals forces (where several isotopes exist, a value is presented for the most prevalent isotope). These values were calculated using a multitude of methods including crystallographic data, gas kinetic collision cross sections, critical densities, liquid state properties, for more details please refer to the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics.


Electron Configuration
The arrangements of electrons above the last (closed shell) noble gas.


Isotopes
Elements are defined by the number of protons in its centre (nucleus), whilst the number of neutrons present can vary. The variations in the number of neutrons will create elements of different mass which are known as isotopes.


Melting Point (oC)
The temperature at which the solid-liquid phase change occurs.


Melting Point (K)
The temperature at which the solid-liquid phase change occurs.


Melting Point (oF)
The temperature at which the solid-liquid phase change occurs.


Boiling Point (oC)
The temperature at which the liquid-gas phase change occurs.


Boiling Point (K)
The temperature at which the liquid-gas phase change occurs.


Boiling Point (oF)
The temperature at which the liquid-gas phase change occurs.


Sublimation
Elements that do not possess a liquid phase at atmospheric pressure (1 atm) are described as going through a sublimation process.


Density (kgm-3)
Density is the weight of a substance that would fill 1 m3 (at 298 K unless otherwise stated).


Relative Atomic Mass
The mass of an atom relative to that of Carbon-12. This is approximately the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. Where more than one isotope exists the value given is the abundance weighted average.


Key Isotopes (% abundance)
An element must by definition have a fixed number of protons in its nucleus, and as such has a fixed atomic number, however variants of an element can exist with differing numbers of neutrons, and hence a different atomic masses (e.g. 12C has 6 protons and 6 neutrons and 13C has 6 protons and 7 neutrons).


CAS number
The Chemical Abstracts Service registry number is a unique identifier of a particular chemical, designed to prevent confusion arising from different languages and naming systems (where several isotopes exist, a value is presented for the most prevalent isotope).

Fact box

 
Group Melting point Unknown 
Period Boiling point Unknown 
Block Density (kg m-3) Unknown 
Atomic number 104  Relative atomic mass 261.109  
State at room temperature Solid  Key isotopes 265Rf 
Electron configuration [Rn] 5f146d27s2  CAS number 53850-36-5 
ChemSpider ID 11201447 ChemSpider is a free chemical structure database
 

Uses and properties terminology


Image Explanation

Murray Robertson is the artist behind the images which make up Visual Elements. This is where the artist explains his interpretation of the element and the science behind the picture.


Natural Abundance

Where this element is most commonly found in nature.


Biological Roles

The elements role within the body of humans, animals and plants. Also functionality in medical advancements both today and years ago.


Appearance

The description of the element in its natural form.

Uses and properties

 
Image explanation
The abstract metallic symbol and background are inspired by imagery from early and modern particle accelerators.
Appearance
A radioactive metal that does not occur naturally. Relatively few atoms have ever been made.
Uses
At present, it is only used in research.
Biological role
Rutherfordium has no known biological role.
Natural abundance
Rutherfordium is a transuranium element. It is created by bombarding californium-249 with carbon-12 nuclei.
 
Atomic data terminology

Atomic radius/non -bonded (Å)
Based on Van der Waals forces (where several isotopes exist, a value is presented for the most prevalent isotope). These values were calculated using a multitude of methods including crystallographic data, gas kinetic collision cross sections, critical densities, liquid state properties,for more details please refer to the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics.


Electron affinity (kJ mol-1)
The energy released when an additional electron is attached to the neutral atom and a negative ion is formed (where several isotopes exist, a value is presented for the most prevalent isotope). *


Electronegativity (Pauling scale)
The degree to which an atom attracts electrons towards itself, expressed on a relative scale as a function bond dissociation energies, Ed in eV. χA - χB =(eV)-1/2sqrt(Ed(AB)-[Ed(AA)+Ed(BB)]/2), with χH set as 2.2 (where several isotopes exist, a value is presented for the most prevalent isotope).


1st Ionisation energy (kJ mol-1)
The minimum energy required to remove an electron from a neutral atom in its ground state (where several isotopes exist, a value is presented for the most prevalent isotope).


Covalent radius (Å)
The size of the atom within a covalent bond, given for typical oxidation number and coordination (where several isotopes exist, a value is presented for the most prevalent isotope). ***

Atomic data

 
Atomic radius, non-bonded (Å) Unknown Covalent radius (Å) 1.57
Electron affinity (kJ mol-1) Unknown Electronegativity
(Pauling scale)
Unknown
Ionisation energies
(kJ mol-1)
 
1st
578.912
2nd
1148.175
3rd
1929.705
4th
2778.775
5th
-
6th
-
7th
-
8th
-
 

Mining/Sourcing Information

Data for this section of the data page has been provided by the British Geological Survey. To review the full report please click here or please look at their website here.


Key for numbers generated


Governance indicators

1 (low) = 0 to 2

2 (medium-low) = 3 to 4

3 (medium) = 5 to 6

4 (medium-high) = 7 to 8

5 (high) = 9


Reserve base distribution

1 (low) = 0 to 30 %

2 (medium-low) = 30 to 45 %

3 (medium) = 45 to 60 %

4 (medium-high) = 60 to 75 %

5 (high) = 75 %

(Where data are unavailable an arbitrary score of 2 was allocated. For example, Be, As, Na, S, In, Cl, Ca and Ge are allocated a score of 2 since reserve base information is unavailable. Reserve base data are also unavailable for coal; however, reserve data for 2008 are available from the Energy Information Administration (EIA).)


Production Concentration

1 (low) = 0 to 30 %

2 (medium-low) = 30 to 45 %

3 (medium) = 45 to 60 %

4 (medium-high) = 60 to 75 %

5 (high) = 75 %


Crustal Abundance

1 (low) = 100 to 1000 ppm

2 (medium-low) =10 to 100 ppm

3 (medium) = 1 to 10 ppm

4 (medium-high) = 0.1 to 1 ppm

5 (high) = 0.1 ppm

(Where data are unavailable an arbitrary score of 2 was allocated. For example, He is allocated a score of 2 since crustal abundance data is unavailable.)


Explanations for terminology


Crustal Abundance (ppm)

The abundance of an element in the Earth's crust in parts-per-million (ppm) i.e. The number of atoms of this element per 1 million atoms of crust.


Sourced

The country with the largest reserve base.


Reserve Base Distribution

This is a measure of the spread of future supplies, recording the percentage of a known resource likely to be available in the intermediate future (reserve base) located in the top three countries.


Production Concentrations

This reports the percentage of an element produced in the top three countries. The higher the value, the larger risk there is to supply.


Total Governance Factor

The World Bank produces a global percentile rank of political stability. The scoring system is given below, and the values for all three production countries were summed.


Relative Supply Risk Index

The Crustal Abundance, Reserve Base Distribution, Production Concentration and Governance Factor scores are summed and then divided by 2, to provide an overall Relative Supply Risk Index.

Supply risk

 
Scarcity factor Unknown
Country with largest reserve base Unknown
Crustal abundance (ppm) Unknown
Leading producer Unknown
Reserve base distribution (%) Unknown
Production concentration (%) Unknown
Total governance factor(production) Unknown
Top 3 countries (mined)
  • Unknown
Top 3 countries (production)
  • Unknown
 

Oxidation states and isotopes


Key for Isotopes


Half Life
  y years
  d days
  h hours
  m minutes
  s seconds
Mode of decay
  α alpha particle emission
  β negative beta (electron) emission
  β+ positron emission
  EC orbital electron capture
  sf spontaneous fission
  ββ double beta emission
  ECEC double orbital electron capture

Terminology


Common Oxidation states
The oxidation state of an atom is a measure of the degree of oxidation of an atom. It is defined as being the charge that an atom would have if all bonds were ionic. Free atoms have an oxidation state of 0, and the sum of oxidation numbers within a substance must equal the overall charge.


Important Oxidation states
The most common oxidation states of an element in its compounds.


Isotopes
Elements are defined by the number of protons in its centre (nucleus), whilst the number of neutrons present can vary. The variations in the number of neutrons will create elements of different mass which are known as isotopes.

Oxidation states and isotopes

 
Common oxidation states Unknown
Isotopes Isotope Atomic mass Natural abundance (%) Half life Mode of decay
  265Rf 265.117 - ~ 2 m  α 
 

Pressure and temperature - advanced terminology


Molar Heat Capacity (J mol-1 K-1)

Molar heat capacity is the energy required to heat a mole of a substance by 1 K.


Young's modulus (GPa)

Young's modulus is a measure of the stiffness of a substance, that is, it provides a measure of how difficult it is to extend a material, with a value given by the ratio of tensile strength to tensile strain.


Shear modulus (GPa)

The shear modulus of a material is a measure of how difficult it is to deform a material, and is given by the ratio of the shear stress to the shear strain.


Bulk modulus (GPa)

The bulk modulus is a measure of how difficult to compress a substance. Given by the ratio of the pressure on a body to the fractional decrease in volume.


Vapour Pressure (Pa)

Vapour pressure is the measure of the propensity of a substance to evaporate. It is defined as the equilibrium pressure exerted by the gas produced above a substance in a closed system.

Pressure and temperature data – advanced

 
Molar heat capacity
(J mol-1 K-1)
Unknown Young's modulus (GPa) Unknown
Shear modulus (GPa) Unknown Bulk modulus (GPa) Unknown
Vapour pressure  
Temperature (K)
400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400
Pressure (Pa)
- - - - - - - - - - -
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History

In 1964, a team led by Georgy Flerov at the Russian Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, bombarded plutonium with neon and produced element 104, isotope 259. They confirmed their findings in 1966.


In 1969, a team led by Albert Ghiorso at the Californian Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) made three successful attempts to produce element 104: by bombarding curium with oxygen to get isotope-260, californium with carbon to get isotope-257, and californium with carbon to get isotope-258.


A dispute over priority of discovery followed and eventually, in 1992, the International Unions of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) concluded that both the Russian and American researchers had been justified in making their claims. IUPAC decided element 104 would be called rutherfordium.

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Podcasts

Listen to Rutherfordium Podcast
Transcript :

Chemistry in its element - rutherfordium


(Promo) 

You're listening to Chemistry in its element brought to you by Chemistry World, the magazine of the Royal Society of Chemistry 

(End promo) 

Meera Senthilingam 

This week we find out how the elements beyond the actinides were discovered. Revealing the chemistry of the first transactinide Rutherfordium, here's Simon Cotton. 

Simon Cotton 

When the last member of the actinide series, element 103 or Lawrencium, was discovered, I was at school doing my A levels, and I remember reading about it in the magazine Scientific American. The isotope found had a mass of 258 and it didn't hang about for long - having a half-life of just 3.8 seconds. This was not unexpected as half lives had been getting shorter right along the actinide series. 

This discovery prompted the scientific community to start asking, are there any elements waiting to be made beyond Lawrencium? And if so, where would they fit in the Periodic Table? 

In those days, scientific competition between Russia and America was intense, and over the next few years both Russian and American nuclear scientists had a bash at element 104. 

Both of them used the nuclear equivalent of a shooting gallery. They fired nuclear bullets, the positive ions of light atoms at targets. The targets weren't moving ducks, but stationary targets of very heavy nuclei. 

What they had to do was to overcome the repulsion between the positive nucleus of the target atom and the positive projectile, so that the two nuclei fused together to make the new heavier atom. And both groups took different approaches. 

The Russians went first, firing neon-22 ions at a target of plutonium-242. The reaction products were immediately chlorinated, and the team claimed they had made a new element which had formed a volatile chloride, though they were not clear about which isotope they might have made, or even its half-life.

Three years later, an American team bombarded californium-249 with carbon-12 ions, and were confident they had made rutherfordium-257, identifying its alpha-decay product, an isotope of nobelium. This was confirmed by a different American team in 1973. Subsequently rutherfordium was also made in 1985 by a German team at Darmstadt, who bombarded a lead-208 target with titanium-50 ions, in other words a lighter target but a heavier projectile.

Since it wasn't clear who the true 'discoverer' was, both the Americans and the Russians suggested names for element 104. The Americans called it Rutherfordium, after Ernest Rutherford, who pioneered the planetary model of the atom and discovered nuclear fission, whilst the Russians chose Kurchatovium after Igor Vasilyevich Kurchatov, a pioneering Russian nuclear physicist who led the project to make the first Russian atom bomb. After much dispute, IUPAC, the institute who officially names new elements, selected the name Rutherfordium. 

Several isotopes of rutherfordium have half-lives in the order of seconds, making chemical experiments possible before the atoms decay. Rutherfordium-261 has a half-life of just over a minute; Rutherfordium-263 has a half-life of 10 minutes and Rutherfordium-267 may have a half life of over an hour, but so far the experiments have to be carried out with the lighter isotopes that are easier to make, like Rutherfordium-261. 

Because it has been around for longer and its isotopes are better known, more is known about the chemistry of Rutherfordium than of any succeeding element. Working with rutherfordium requires specialist methods and knowledge, as it involves working with tiny quantities of very short-lived, radioactive atoms. This means that as soon as a new atom has been made, it has to be whipped away from the action before it decays. So new atoms of rutherfordium have to be collected as soon as they recoil from the target, and then be transported by an aerosol before being chlorinated and chromatographed before passing to a detector. It has been found that in solution, rutherfordium behaves very similarly to zirconium and hafnium, but unlike the trivalent actinides, leading chemists to concluded that rutherfordium belongs in the same group as Zr and Hf, rather than being a kind of super-actinide. 

It also forms quite strong chloride complexes in solution, again resembling zirconium and hafnium rather than the actinides or Group I and II metals. Rutherfordium chloride is believed to be RfCl4. It condenses around 220°C, similar to zirconium chloride but more volatile than hafnium chloride and much more volatile than the actinide tetrachlorides. Similarly rutherfordium bromide is more volatile than hafnium bromide. 

So even though it is extremely unlikely that enough of any rutherfordium compound is going to be isolated in visible quantities, we do know enough to see which family Rutherfordium belongs in. That's another triumph for our understanding of the Periodic Table. 

Meera Senthilingam 

Triumph indeed when the half lives of the isotopes involved are a matter of seconds. That was Uppingham School's Simon Cotton with the chemistry of the first transactinide Rutherfordium. Now next week an element that some may unfairly consider useless when it certainly does have its uses. 

Brian Clegg 

For a long time thulium was a Cinderella substance. There was nothing you could do with thulium that couldn't be done better and cheaper with one of the other elements. It's notable that one science writer has said of thulium 'the most surprising thing about it is there's nothing surprising about it.' But that's a little unfair. Thulium 170 with a half life of 128 days, produced by bombarding thulium in a nuclear reactor, has proved a good portable source of X-rays. It was first suggested for this role in the 1950s and has frequently turned up since in small scale devices, such as those used in dentist's surgeries, but also find it cropping up in engineering, where the X-rays can be used to hunt for cracks in components. 

Meera Senthilingam 

And join Brian Clegg to find out how this rare earth element was discovered and why it's considered more valuable than platinum in next week's Chemistry in its Element. Until then I'm Meera Senthilingam and thank you for listening. 

(Promo) 

Chemistry in its element is brought to you by the Royal Society of Chemistry and produced by thenakedscientists dot com. There's more information and other episodes of Chemistry in its element on our website at chemistryworld dot org forward slash elements. 

(End promo) 

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Resources

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References

 
Images:  Visual Elements © Murray Robertson 2011
Mining and Sourcing data:  British Geological Survey – natural environment research council.
Text:  John Emsley Nature’s Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements, Oxford University Press, 2nd Edition, 2011.
Additional information for platinum, gold, neodymium and dysprosium obtained from Material Value Consultancy Ltd www.matvalue.com
Data: CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, CRC Press, 92nd Edition, 2011.
G. W. C. Kaye and T. H. Laby Tables of Physical and Chemical Constants, Longman, 16th Edition, 1995.
Members of the RSC can access these books through our library.