Periodic Table > Seaborgium
 

Terminology


Allotropes
Some elements exist in several different structural forms, these are called allotropes.


For more information on Murray Robertson’s image see Uses/Interesting Facts below.

 

Fact Box Terminology


Group
Elements appear in columns or ‘groups’ in the periodic table. Members of a group typically have similar properties and electron configurations in their outer shell.


Period
Elements are laid out into rows or ‘periods’ so that similar chemical behaviour is observed in columns.


Block
Elements are organised into blocks by the orbital type in which the outer electrons are found. These blocks are named for the characteristic spectra they produce: sharp, principal, diffuse, and fundamental.


Atomic Number
The number of protons in the nucleus.


Atomic Radius/non -bonded (Å)
based on Van der Waals forces (where several isotopes exist, a value is presented for the most prevalent isotope). These values were calculated using a multitude of methods including crystallographic data, gas kinetic collision cross sections, critical densities, liquid state properties, for more details please refer to the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics.


Electron Configuration
The arrangements of electrons above the last (closed shell) noble gas.


Isotopes
Elements are defined by the number of protons in its centre (nucleus), whilst the number of neutrons present can vary. The variations in the number of neutrons will create elements of different mass which are known as isotopes.


Melting Point (oC)
The temperature at which the solid-liquid phase change occurs.


Melting Point (K)
The temperature at which the solid-liquid phase change occurs.


Melting Point (oF)
The temperature at which the solid-liquid phase change occurs.


Boiling Point (oC)
The temperature at which the liquid-gas phase change occurs.


Boiling Point (K)
The temperature at which the liquid-gas phase change occurs.


Boiling Point (oF)
The temperature at which the liquid-gas phase change occurs.


Sublimation
Elements that do not possess a liquid phase at atmospheric pressure (1 atm) are described as going through a sublimation process.


Density (kgm-3)
Density is the weight of a substance that would fill 1 m3 (at 298 K unless otherwise stated).


Relative Atomic Mass
The mass of an atom relative to that of Carbon-12. This is approximately the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. Where more than one isotope exists the value given is the abundance weighted average.


Key Isotopes (% abundance)
An element must by definition have a fixed number of protons in its nucleus, and as such has a fixed atomic number, however variants of an element can exist with differing numbers of neutrons, and hence a different atomic masses (e.g. 12C has 6 protons and 6 neutrons and 13C has 6 protons and 7 neutrons).


CAS number
The Chemical Abstracts Service registry number is a unique identifier of a particular chemical, designed to prevent confusion arising from different languages and naming systems (where several isotopes exist, a value is presented for the most prevalent isotope).

Fact Box

 
Group Melting point Unknown 
Period Boiling point Unknown 
Block Density (kg m-3) Unknown 
Atomic number 106  Relative atomic mass 263.118  
State at room temperature Solid  Key isotopes 271Sg 
Electron configuration [Rn] 5f146d47s2  CAS number 34038-81-2 
ChemSpider ID - ChemSpider is a free chemical structure database
 

Interesting Facts terminology


Image Explanation

Murray Robertson is the artist behind the images which make up Visual Elements. This is where the artist explains his interpretation of the element and the science behind the picture.


Natural Abundance

Where this element is most commonly found in nature.


Biological Roles

The elements role within the body of humans, animals and plants. Also functionality in medical advancements both today and years ago.


Appearance

The description of the element in its natural form.

Uses / Interesting Facts

 
Image explanation
An abstracted atomic symbol and background inspired by imagery from early particle accelerators and those such as at Cern and Fermilab.
Appearance
A radioactive metal which does not occur naturally and is of research interest only. Only a few atoms have ever been made, and its chemistry resembles that of tungsten.
Uses
At present, it is only used in research.
Biological role
None.
Natural abundance
A transuranium element created by bombarding 249Cf with 18O nuclei.
 
Atomic Data Terminology

Atomic radius/non -bonded (Å)
Based on Van der Waals forces (where several isotopes exist, a value is presented for the most prevalent isotope). These values were calculated using a multitude of methods including crystallographic data, gas kinetic collision cross sections, critical densities, liquid state properties,for more details please refer to the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics.


Electron affinity (kJ mol-1)
The energy released when an additional electron is attached to the neutral atom and a negative ion is formed (where several isotopes exist, a value is presented for the most prevalent isotope). *


Electronegativity (Pauling scale)
The degree to which an atom attracts electrons towards itself, expressed on a relative scale as a function bond dissociation energies, Ed in eV. χA - χB =(eV)-1/2sqrt(Ed(AB)-[Ed(AA)+Ed(BB)]/2), with χH set as 2.2 (where several isotopes exist, a value is presented for the most prevalent isotope).


1st Ionisation energy (kJ mol-1)
The minimum energy required to remove an electron from a neutral atom in its ground state (where several isotopes exist, a value is presented for the most prevalent isotope).


Covalent radius (Å)
The size of the atom within a covalent bond, given for typical oxidation number and coordination (where several isotopes exist, a value is presented for the most prevalent isotope). ***

Atomic Data

 
Atomic radius, non-bonded (Å) Unknown Covalent radius (Å) 1.43
Electron affinity (kJ mol-1) Unknown Electronegativity
(Pauling scale)
Unknown
Ionisation energies
(kJ mol-1)
 
1st
-
2nd
-
3rd
-
4th
-
5th
-
6th
-
7th
-
8th
-
 

Mining/Sourcing Information

Data for this section of the data page has been provided by the British Geological Survey. To review the full report please click here or please look at their website here.


Key for numbers generated


Governance indicators

1 (low) = 0 to 2

2 (medium-low) = 3 to 4

3 (medium) = 5 to 6

4 (medium-high) = 7 to 8

5 (high) = 9


Reserve base distribution

1 (low) = 0 to 30 %

2 (medium-low) = 30 to 45 %

3 (medium) = 45 to 60 %

4 (medium-high) = 60 to 75 %

5 (high) = 75 %

(Where data are unavailable an arbitrary score of 2 was allocated. For example, Be, As, Na, S, In, Cl, Ca and Ge are allocated a score of 2 since reserve base information is unavailable. Reserve base data are also unavailable for coal; however, reserve data for 2008 are available from the Energy Information Administration (EIA).)


Production Concentration

1 (low) = 0 to 30 %

2 (medium-low) = 30 to 45 %

3 (medium) = 45 to 60 %

4 (medium-high) = 60 to 75 %

5 (high) = 75 %


Crustal Abundance

1 (low) = 100 to 1000 ppm

2 (medium-low) =10 to 100 ppm

3 (medium) = 1 to 10 ppm

4 (medium-high) = 0.1 to 1 ppm

5 (high) = 0.1 ppm

(Where data are unavailable an arbitrary score of 2 was allocated. For example, He is allocated a score of 2 since crustal abundance data is unavailable.)


Explanations for terminology


Crustal Abundance (ppm)

The abundance of an element in the Earth's crust in parts-per-million (ppm) i.e. The number of atoms of this element per 1 million atoms of crust.


Sourced

The country with the largest reserve base.


Reserve Base Distribution

This is a measure of the spread of future supplies, recording the percentage of a known resource likely to be available in the intermediate future (reserve base) located in the top three countries.


Production Concentrations

This reports the percentage of an element produced in the top three countries. The higher the value, the larger risk there is to supply.


Total Governance Factor

The World Bank produces a global percentile rank of political stability. The scoring system is given below, and the values for all three production countries were summed.


Relative Supply Risk Index

The Crustal Abundance, Reserve Base Distribution, Production Concentration and Governance Factor scores are summed and then divided by 2, to provide an overall Relative Supply Risk Index.

Supply Risk

 
Scarcity factor Unknown
Country with largest reserve base Unknown
Crustal abundance (ppm) Unknown
Leading producer Unknown
Reserve base distribution (%) Unknown
Production concentration (%) Unknown
Total governance factor(production) Unknown
Top 3 countries (mined)
  • Unknown
Top 3 countries (production)
  • Unknown
 

Oxidation states/ Isotopes


Key for Isotopes


Half Life
  y years
  d days
  h hours
  m minutes
  s seconds
Mode of decay
  α alpha particle emission
  β negative beta (electron) emission
  β+ positron emission
  EC orbital electron capture
  sf spontaneous fission
  ββ double beta emission
  ECEC double orbital electron capture

Terminology


Common Oxidation states
The oxidation state of an atom is a measure of the degree of oxidation of an atom. It is defined as being the charge that an atom would have if all bonds were ionic. Free atoms have an oxidation state of 0, and the sum of oxidation numbers within a substance must equal the overall charge.


Important Oxidation states
The most common oxidation states of an element in its compounds.


Isotopes
Elements are defined by the number of protons in its centre (nucleus), whilst the number of neutrons present can vary. The variations in the number of neutrons will create elements of different mass which are known as isotopes.

Oxidation States / Isotopes

 
Common oxidation states Unknown
Isotopes Isotope Atomic mass Natural abundance (%) Half life Mode of decay
  271Sg 271.133 - 2 m  α 
        sf 
 

Pressure and Temperature - Advanced Terminology


Molar Heat Capacity (J mol-1 K-1)

Molar heat capacity is the energy required to heat a mole of a substance by 1 K.


Young's modulus (GPa)

Young's modulus is a measure of the stiffness of a substance, that is, it provides a measure of how difficult it is to extend a material, with a value given by the ratio of tensile strength to tensile strain.


Shear modulus (GPa)

The shear modulus of a material is a measure of how difficult it is to deform a material, and is given by the ratio of the shear stress to the shear strain.


Bulk modulus (GPa)

The bulk modulus is a measure of how difficult to compress a substance. Given by the ratio of the pressure on a body to the fractional decrease in volume.


Vapour Pressure (Pa)

Vapour pressure is the measure of the propensity of a substance to evaporate. It is defined as the equilibrium pressure exerted by the gas produced above a substance in a closed system.

Pressure / Temperature - Advanced

 
Molar heat capacity
(J mol-1 K-1)
Unknown Young's modulus (GPa) Unknown
Shear modulus (GPa) Unknown Bulk modulus (GPa) Unknown
Vapour pressure  
Temperature (K)
400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400
Pressure (Pa)
- - - - - - - - - - -
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History

In 1970, a team led by Albert Ghiorso at the Californian Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) bombarded californium with oxygen and was successful in producing element 106, isotope 263. In 1974, a team led by Georgy Flerov and Yuri Oganessian at the Russian Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) bombarded lead with chromium and obtained isotopes 259 and 260.


In September 1974, a team led by Ghiorso at LBNL produced isotope 263, with a half-life of 0.8 seconds, by bombarding californium with oxygen. Several atoms of seaborgium have since been made by this method which produces one seaborgium atom per hour.

  Help text not available for this section currently

Podcasts

Listen to Seaborgium Podcast
Transcript :

Chemistry in its Element - Seaborgium


  (Promo)

You're listening to Chemistry in its element brought to you by Chemistry World, the magazine of the Royal Society of Chemistry 

(End promo)

Chris Smith 

Hello, this week we're meeting a chemical that you won't find much of because at the most scientists have only ever managed to make just a handful of its atoms.   It's named after the man who discovered plutonium and with it the fact that by crashing atoms into one another we can make entirely new elements.   But this week's element is a controversial chemical and to explain why here's Phil Ball

 

Phil Ball  

Several elements are named after people. Many of the pioneers of nuclear physics and chemistry feature in the list of heavy, radioactive elements discovered since the mid-twentieth century: Ernest Rutherford, Marie Curie, Enrico Fermi, Niels Bohr. 

But only two elements have been named after living people. One is element 99, einsteinium. The other is element 106, called seaborgium in honour of the American chemist Glenn Seaborg. 

Seaborg's career spans from the age when scientists were only just beginning to understand what atoms are made of, to the quarks and gluons, superstrings and supercolliders of today. He was one of the select band of scientists who first glimpsed the awesome energies that lurked inside the atomic nucleus, which could be released slowly and controllably to power entire cities, or quickly to destroy them. 

When Seaborg began his scientific career at the University of California at Berkeley in 1930s, the Periodic Table of elements was thought to stop at element 92, uranium. Scientists had discovered that elements could be transmuted in a kind of modern alchemy by firing subatomic particles at them in particle accelerators. Some particles might stick; others might break the nucleus into fragments. Either way, the number of protons in the target nucleus could change, making it a different element. 

Enrico Fermi was the first to realise that this could offer a way to make new elements heavier than uranium. Such an element, neptunium or element 93, was identified in 1940, and in that same year Seaborg was one of a team at Berkeley that created the next in line: plutonium, element 94. The challenge was to separate the tiny quantities of these new, artificial elements from the rest of the debris, and Seaborg pioneered chemical methods for doing this. 

In 1944 Seaborg and his colleagues added elements 95 and 96 to the list, and, after the Second World War, elements 97 and 98. It began to seem that there was no end to the new elements one could make in atom-crashing experiments.   

But Seaborg wanted to know what they were like chemically. To judge from where they seemed to sit in the Periodic Table, the elements after number 89, actinium, should behave like transition metals. But Seaborg found that they didn't really do that, and in 1945 he suggested that they formed an entirely new series which he called the actinides. Several of his colleagues were scepticial, but he was right. 

Seaborg's skill in developing essential chemical separation methods for these super-heavy human-made elements, along with the chemical intuition that allowed him to rewrite the Periodic Table, made him an obvious candidate for honouring with the name of a new element. That opportunity came when the Berkeley radiochemists established their priority to element 106. They had made it back in 1974 by firing oxygen ions at element 98, californium. But a Russian team claimed to have made it earlier that same year. It was not until 1993 that the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) decided that the Berkeley claim was stronger.   

And so they got to name element 106, and proposed to call it seaborgium. But you can't do that, IUPAC said, because it is simply not done to name elements after living people. Don't be absurd, replied the American Chemical Society, which insisted that as far as it was concerned, element 106 was now seaborgium. In the face of such determination, IUPAC was forced to relent, and seaborgium went into Periodic Tables on the walls of chemistry labs worldwide. 

And what's it like? In a marvellous experiment in 1997, an international team did Seaborg's legacy proud by finding out what kind of chemical compounds seaborgium forms. The two isotopes they studied decay radioactively with a half-life of no more than half a minute. And the nuclear collisions used to make them created only about one atom per hour. Yet, with just seven fleeting atoms of seaborgium to work with, the researchers figured out that it is a metal comparable to molybdenum and tungsten. In such virtuoso experiments we can see the Periodic Table continuing to exert its pattern even among the elements that nature never glimpsed.     

Chris Smith

 

Phil Ball on Seaborgium, the cheeky element that broke with tradition and dared to call itself after someone that wasn't dead.   Next week we'll be finding out why a balloon bobbing on a string can reduce a chemist to tears. 

Pete Wothers

 

We are all familiar with the lighter-than-air gas helium, but whenever I see a balloon floating on a string, I feel a little sad.   It's not because I'm a miserable old so-and-so - it's just because, unlike the happy child on the other end of the string, I am aware of the valuable resource that's about to be lost forever. 

 

Chris Smith

 

And Peter Wothers will be bringing us down to earth with the story of Helium, next time.   I do hope you can join us.   I'm Chris Smith, thank you for listening and goodbye. 

(Promo)

 

Chemistry in its element is brought to you by the Royal Society of Chemistry and produced by thenakedscientists dot com. There's more information and other episodes of Chemistry in its element on our website at chemistryworld dot org forward slash elements. 

 

(End promo)

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Resources

Description :
Assessment for Learning is an effective way of actively involving students in their learning. This is a series of plans based around chemistry topics.
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When concentrated hydrochloric acid is added to a very dilute solution of copper sulfate, the pale blue solution slowly turns yellow-green on the formation of a copper chloride complex. When concentr...
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The purpose of this experiment is to examine some of the solution chemistry of the transition elements
Description :
The purpose of this experiment is to observe and interpret some of the chemistry of three first row transition elements and to compare them with a typical s-block element.
Description :
The Periodic Table allows chemists to see similarities and trends in the properties of chemical elements. This experiment illustrates some properties of the common transition elements and their compo...
Description :
In this experiment you will be looking at a group of transition elements chromium, molybdenum and tungsten.
 

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References

 
Images:  Visual Elements © Murray Robertson 2011
Mining and Sourcing data:  British Geological Survey – natural environment research council.
Text:  John Emsley Nature’s Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements, Oxford University Press, 2nd Edition, 2011.
Additional information for platinum, gold, neodymium and dysprosium obtained from Material Value Consultancy Ltd www.matvalue.com
Data: CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, CRC Press, 92nd Edition, 2011.
G. W. C. Kaye and T. H. Laby Tables of Physical and Chemical Constants, Longman, 16th Edition, 1995.
Members of the RSC can access these books through our library.