Periodic Table > Roentgenium
 

Terminology


Allotropes
Some elements exist in several different structural forms, these are called allotropes.


For more information on Murray Robertson’s image see Uses/Interesting Facts below.

 

Fact Box Terminology


Group
Elements appear in columns or ‘groups’ in the periodic table. Members of a group typically have similar properties and electron configurations in their outer shell.


Period
Elements are laid out into rows or ‘periods’ so that similar chemical behaviour is observed in columns.


Block
Elements are organised into blocks by the orbital type in which the outer electrons are found. These blocks are named for the characteristic spectra they produce: sharp, principal, diffuse, and fundamental.


Atomic Number
The number of protons in the nucleus.


Atomic Radius/non -bonded (Å)
based on Van der Waals forces (where several isotopes exist, a value is presented for the most prevalent isotope). These values were calculated using a multitude of methods including crystallographic data, gas kinetic collision cross sections, critical densities, liquid state properties, for more details please refer to the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics.


Electron Configuration
The arrangements of electrons above the last (closed shell) noble gas.


Isotopes
Elements are defined by the number of protons in its centre (nucleus), whilst the number of neutrons present can vary. The variations in the number of neutrons will create elements of different mass which are known as isotopes.


Melting Point (oC)
The temperature at which the solid-liquid phase change occurs.


Melting Point (K)
The temperature at which the solid-liquid phase change occurs.


Melting Point (oF)
The temperature at which the solid-liquid phase change occurs.


Boiling Point (oC)
The temperature at which the liquid-gas phase change occurs.


Boiling Point (K)
The temperature at which the liquid-gas phase change occurs.


Boiling Point (oF)
The temperature at which the liquid-gas phase change occurs.


Sublimation
Elements that do not possess a liquid phase at atmospheric pressure (1 atm) are described as going through a sublimation process.


Density (kgm-3)
Density is the weight of a substance that would fill 1 m3 (at 298 K unless otherwise stated).


Relative Atomic Mass
The mass of an atom relative to that of Carbon-12. This is approximately the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. Where more than one isotope exists the value given is the abundance weighted average.


Key Isotopes (% abundance)
An element must by definition have a fixed number of protons in its nucleus, and as such has a fixed atomic number, however variants of an element can exist with differing numbers of neutrons, and hence a different atomic masses (e.g. 12C has 6 protons and 6 neutrons and 13C has 6 protons and 7 neutrons).


CAS number
The Chemical Abstracts Service registry number is a unique identifier of a particular chemical, designed to prevent confusion arising from different languages and naming systems (where several isotopes exist, a value is presented for the most prevalent isotope).

Fact Box

 
Group 11  Melting point Unknown 
Period Boiling point Unknown 
Block Density (kg m-3) Unknown 
Atomic number 111  Relative atomic mass 273.154  
State at room temperature Solid  Key isotopes 280Rg 
Electron configuration [Rn] 5f146d107s1  CAS number 54386-24-2 
ChemSpider ID - ChemSpider is a free chemical structure database
 

Interesting Facts terminology


Image Explanation

Murray Robertson is the artist behind the images which make up Visual Elements. This is where the artist explains his interpretation of the element and the science behind the picture.


Natural Abundance

Where this element is most commonly found in nature.


Biological Roles

The elements role within the body of humans, animals and plants. Also functionality in medical advancements both today and years ago.


Appearance

The description of the element in its natural form.

Uses / Interesting Facts

 
Image explanation
The icon is based on an early X-ray tube and imagery inspired by X-ray astronomy and particle accelerators.
Appearance
A highly radioactive metal, of which only a few atoms have ever been made.
Uses
At present, it is only used in research.
Biological role
It has no known biological role. It is toxic due to its radioactivity.
Natural abundance
A man-made element of which only a few atoms have ever been created, by fusing nickel and bismuth atoms in a heavy ion accelerator.
 
Atomic Data Terminology

Atomic radius/non -bonded (Å)
Based on Van der Waals forces (where several isotopes exist, a value is presented for the most prevalent isotope). These values were calculated using a multitude of methods including crystallographic data, gas kinetic collision cross sections, critical densities, liquid state properties,for more details please refer to the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics.


Electron affinity (kJ mol-1)
The energy released when an additional electron is attached to the neutral atom and a negative ion is formed (where several isotopes exist, a value is presented for the most prevalent isotope). *


Electronegativity (Pauling scale)
The degree to which an atom attracts electrons towards itself, expressed on a relative scale as a function bond dissociation energies, Ed in eV. χA - χB =(eV)-1/2sqrt(Ed(AB)-[Ed(AA)+Ed(BB)]/2), with χH set as 2.2 (where several isotopes exist, a value is presented for the most prevalent isotope).


1st Ionisation energy (kJ mol-1)
The minimum energy required to remove an electron from a neutral atom in its ground state (where several isotopes exist, a value is presented for the most prevalent isotope).


Covalent radius (Å)
The size of the atom within a covalent bond, given for typical oxidation number and coordination (where several isotopes exist, a value is presented for the most prevalent isotope). ***

Atomic Data

 
Atomic radius, non-bonded (Å) Unknown Covalent radius (Å) 1.21
Electron affinity (kJ mol-1) Unknown Electronegativity
(Pauling scale)
Unknown
Ionisation energies
(kJ mol-1)
 
1st
-
2nd
-
3rd
-
4th
-
5th
-
6th
-
7th
-
8th
-
 

Mining/Sourcing Information

Data for this section of the data page has been provided by the British Geological Survey. To review the full report please click here or please look at their website here.


Key for numbers generated


Governance indicators

1 (low) = 0 to 2

2 (medium-low) = 3 to 4

3 (medium) = 5 to 6

4 (medium-high) = 7 to 8

5 (high) = 9


Reserve base distribution

1 (low) = 0 to 30 %

2 (medium-low) = 30 to 45 %

3 (medium) = 45 to 60 %

4 (medium-high) = 60 to 75 %

5 (high) = 75 %

(Where data are unavailable an arbitrary score of 2 was allocated. For example, Be, As, Na, S, In, Cl, Ca and Ge are allocated a score of 2 since reserve base information is unavailable. Reserve base data are also unavailable for coal; however, reserve data for 2008 are available from the Energy Information Administration (EIA).)


Production Concentration

1 (low) = 0 to 30 %

2 (medium-low) = 30 to 45 %

3 (medium) = 45 to 60 %

4 (medium-high) = 60 to 75 %

5 (high) = 75 %


Crustal Abundance

1 (low) = 100 to 1000 ppm

2 (medium-low) =10 to 100 ppm

3 (medium) = 1 to 10 ppm

4 (medium-high) = 0.1 to 1 ppm

5 (high) = 0.1 ppm

(Where data are unavailable an arbitrary score of 2 was allocated. For example, He is allocated a score of 2 since crustal abundance data is unavailable.)


Explanations for terminology


Crustal Abundance (ppm)

The abundance of an element in the Earth's crust in parts-per-million (ppm) i.e. The number of atoms of this element per 1 million atoms of crust.


Sourced

The country with the largest reserve base.


Reserve Base Distribution

This is a measure of the spread of future supplies, recording the percentage of a known resource likely to be available in the intermediate future (reserve base) located in the top three countries.


Production Concentrations

This reports the percentage of an element produced in the top three countries. The higher the value, the larger risk there is to supply.


Total Governance Factor

The World Bank produces a global percentile rank of political stability. The scoring system is given below, and the values for all three production countries were summed.


Relative Supply Risk Index

The Crustal Abundance, Reserve Base Distribution, Production Concentration and Governance Factor scores are summed and then divided by 2, to provide an overall Relative Supply Risk Index.

Supply Risk

 
Scarcity factor Unknown
Country with largest reserve base Unknown
Crustal abundance (ppm) Unknown
Leading producer Unknown
Reserve base distribution (%) Unknown
Production concentration (%) Unknown
Total governance factor(production) Unknown
Top 3 countries (mined)
  • Unknown
Top 3 countries (production)
  • Unknown
 

Oxidation states/ Isotopes


Key for Isotopes


Half Life
  y years
  d days
  h hours
  m minutes
  s seconds
Mode of decay
  α alpha particle emission
  β negative beta (electron) emission
  β+ positron emission
  EC orbital electron capture
  sf spontaneous fission
  ββ double beta emission
  ECEC double orbital electron capture

Terminology


Common Oxidation states
The oxidation state of an atom is a measure of the degree of oxidation of an atom. It is defined as being the charge that an atom would have if all bonds were ionic. Free atoms have an oxidation state of 0, and the sum of oxidation numbers within a substance must equal the overall charge.


Important Oxidation states
The most common oxidation states of an element in its compounds.


Isotopes
Elements are defined by the number of protons in its centre (nucleus), whilst the number of neutrons present can vary. The variations in the number of neutrons will create elements of different mass which are known as isotopes.

Oxidation States / Isotopes

 
Common oxidation states Unknown
Isotopes Isotope Atomic mass Natural abundance (%) Half life Mode of decay
  280Rg 280.164 - ~ 3.6 s  α 
 

Pressure and Temperature - Advanced Terminology


Molar Heat Capacity (J mol-1 K-1)

Molar heat capacity is the energy required to heat a mole of a substance by 1 K.


Young's modulus (GPa)

Young's modulus is a measure of the stiffness of a substance, that is, it provides a measure of how difficult it is to extend a material, with a value given by the ratio of tensile strength to tensile strain.


Shear modulus (GPa)

The shear modulus of a material is a measure of how difficult it is to deform a material, and is given by the ratio of the shear stress to the shear strain.


Bulk modulus (GPa)

The bulk modulus is a measure of how difficult to compress a substance. Given by the ratio of the pressure on a body to the fractional decrease in volume.


Vapour Pressure (Pa)

Vapour pressure is the measure of the propensity of a substance to evaporate. It is defined as the equilibrium pressure exerted by the gas produced above a substance in a closed system.

Pressure / Temperature - Advanced

 
Molar heat capacity
(J mol-1 K-1)
Unknown Young's modulus (GPa) Unknown
Shear modulus (GPa) Unknown Bulk modulus (GPa) Unknown
Vapour pressure  
Temperature (K)
400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400
Pressure (Pa)
- - - - - - - - - - -
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History

There are seven known isotopes of the element: 272, 274 and 278-282. The longest lived is isotope 281 which has a half-life of 22.8 seconds. In 1986, physicists at the Russian Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), bombarded bismuth with nickel hoping to make element 111, but they failed to detect any atoms of element 111. In 1994, a team led by Peter Armbruster and Gottfred Munzenberg at the German Geselleschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI), were successful when they bombarded bismuth with nickel and they obtained few atoms of isotope 272. It had a half-life of 1.5 milliseconds.

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Podcasts

Listen to Roentgenium Podcast
Transcript :

Chemistry in its element - roentgenium


(Promo) 

You're listening to Chemistry in its element brought to you by Chemistry World, the magazine of the Royal Society of Chemistry 

(End promo) 

Meera Senthilingam 

This week an element that needs just the right conditions in order to get a successful collision. Here's Simon Cotton

Simon Cotton 

I used to be able to go into my chemistry lab, look the pupils in the eye, and say 'U-U-U'. And they would say 'What have I done, Sir?' 'You've done nothing wrong' I would reply, 'I am talking about Element 111, Unununium, symbol Uuu'. 

So I was a bit sad when in 2004 a joint working party of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry and International Union of Pure and Applied Physics recommended that the name of element 111 be changed to Roentgenium, symbol Rg. 

Roentgenium was in fact discovered 10 years earlier on December 8, 1994, by a team of 13 nuclear physicists working at the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung at Darmstadt in Germany carried out an experiment, bombarding a target of 209Bi with 64Ni ions. The idea was to make the nickel ions penetrate the bismuth nucleus, so that the two nuclei would fuse together, making a bigger atom. The energy of the collision had to be carefully controlled, because if the nickel ions were not going fast enough, they could not overcome the repulsion between the two positive nuclei, would just fly off the bismuth on contact. However, if the nickel ions had too much energy, the resulting 'compound nucleus' would have so much excess energy that it could undergo fission and just fall apart. The trick was, like Goldilocks' porridge, to be 'just right', so that the fusion of the nuclei would occur, just. 

Successful collisions would not occur very often, as most of an atom is empty space. The scientists were however able to observe three successful collisions, forming atoms of atomic number 111 and mass 272. They were very short-lived, with a half-life of around 1 ½ milliseconds. The new atoms were identified by following what happened to them when they decayed - they underwent alpha decay successively forming atoms of elements 109, 107, 105 and 103. In further experiments carried out in 2000, the team carried out more bombardments and observed another three more atoms of element 111. This time they followed the decay chains even further, right down to mendelevium-252, element 101. 

The discovery of this new element was first announced in a paper published early in 1995. It was given a temporary name of Unununium, derived from its atomic number, and the symbol Uuu. No permanent name was assigned to element 111, as independent confimation of its existence was needed, and this did not happen until 2003, when a team at the RIKEN Linear Accelerator facility in Japan made 14 atoms of this isotope. The workers at Darmstadt were then given the honor of proposing proposed the name Roentgenium, in recognition of Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen, who discovered X-rays in 1895. 

No one knows for sure what roentgenium looks like, but it has been placed under copper, silver and gold in the Periodic Table. Theoretical chemists have had fun predicting its properties, and they think that if anyone ever sees any roentgenium metal, it is likely to be silver in colour and it will be very unreactive. Its chemistry is predicted to involve the +3 and +5 oxidation states. 

When scientists made element 115 back in 2004, they identified in its decay chain a roentgenium isotope of mass 280 with a half life of about 3.6 seconds. So if it can be made directly, there is the possibility of real chemical reactions being studied. 

So, ladies and gentlemen, that is roentgenium, which looks like being a very precious metal, albeit only for a few seconds. 

Meera Senthilingam 

So blink and you may just miss the magic. That was Uppingham School's Simon Cotton with the speedy yet precise chemistry of roentgenium. Now next week we've got a two-faced element. 

Tim Harrison 

Chlorine is what you might describe as a Jekyll and Hyde element; it is the friend of the synthetic chemist and has found a use in a number of 'nice' applications such as the disinfecting of drinking water and keeping our swimming pools clean. It also has an unpleasant side, being the first chemical warfare agent and taking some of the blame for the depletion of the Earth's ozone layer. 

Meera Senthilingam 

So is it friend or is it foe? Join Bristol University's Tim Harrison to find out in next week's Chemistry in its Element. Until then I'm Meera Senthilingam and thank you for listening. 

(Promo) 

Chemistry in its element is brought to you by the Royal Society of Chemistry and produced by thenakedscientists dot com. There's more information and other episodes of Chemistry in its element on our website at chemistryworld dot org forward slash elements. 

(End promo) 

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  Help Text

Resources

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The purpose of this experiment is to observe and interpret some of the chemistry of three first row transition elements and to compare them with a typical s-block element.
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The Periodic Table allows chemists to see similarities and trends in the properties of chemical elements. This experiment illustrates some properties of the common transition elements and their compo...
Description :
In this experiment you will be looking at a group of transition elements chromium, molybdenum and tungsten.
 

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References

 
Images:  Visual Elements © Murray Robertson 2011
Mining and Sourcing data:  British Geological Survey – natural environment research council.
Text:  John Emsley Nature’s Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements, Oxford University Press, 2nd Edition, 2011.
Additional information for platinum, gold, neodymium and dysprosium obtained from Material Value Consultancy Ltd www.matvalue.com
Data: CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, CRC Press, 92nd Edition, 2011.
G. W. C. Kaye and T. H. Laby Tables of Physical and Chemical Constants, Longman, 16th Edition, 1995.
Members of the RSC can access these books through our library.